In the psychoanalytic academic approach provided by Z. Freud, aggressiveness is considered a procreation of struggle instinct, along with the instincts of life, Eros, death, destruction. Z. Freud, examining the nature of the aggressiveness, wrote that a man continuously produces aggressive energy, which he occasionally “throws out,” sometimes even without any apparent reason.
In the ethological academic approach (K. Lorenz), it is claimed and written that aggressiveness is an integral part of human nature and originates from the innate struggle instinct for survival.
Situational Aggression Theory
In accordance with the theory of situational aggressiveness (J. Dollard) well-known in the academic world, frustration (disturbance, irritation) always leads to aggressiveness, but aggressiveness not always appears in relation to frustration. Often, because of fear of punishment, a strong response reaction of someone, the person transfers his bellicose actions on another person or object that can’t respond to him. N.E. Miller proposed systematized model that explains the appearance of such a phenomenon. He wrote that bellicose of the individual has such demeanor due to three factors: the strength of motivation to aggressiveness; the power of factors that slows down this demeanor; similarity of each potential victim with a frustrating factor.
Social Learning Theory of Aggression
Write that the theory of social learning of aggressiveness (A. Bandura) known for an academic sociology also deserves attention, which claims that bellicose demeanor is a complex skill system, which requires a comprehensive long-term learning. A person must observe the social forms of aggressiveness and assimilate them.
Only the leading academic theories are highlighted in this essay, which explain the phenomenon of aggressiveness, are highlighted in this essay. Write that the appearance of such theories demonstrates the seriousness and the ambiguity of this phenomenon, and the theories contain the idea that aggressiveness is inherent in man from birth, and aggressiveness as the social quality is acquired by baby very early, if he has the opportunity to observe its manifestations in environment life.
Kids, who come from the following families, have most propensities for coercion:
- Single-parent families. The child, who is brought up by a single parent, is more inclined to use emotional coercion towards peers. And girls will be more likely to apply emotional coercion to others than boys in this family.
- Families in which the mothers have the negative attitude to life. Mothers, who don’t trust the world of the child and the school usually don’t have the desire to cooperate with the school. In connection with this, the manifestation of coercion isn’t condemned and corrected by the mother of the child. In such cases, the mothers tend to justify coercion as a natural reaction in contact with “enemies.”
- The imperious and the authoritarian families. Parenting in conditions of a dominant influence is characterized by unconditional submission to the will of the parents, so kids in such families are often “crushed,” and the school is a “channel,” where they splash out internally suppressed anger and fear.
- Families, who have different conflicting family relationships. The so-called “learning model” is working in families, where adults often quarrel and swear; aggressively assert themselves in the presence of a child. The children learn and subsequently apply it in everyday life as a way to cope with the situation. Thus, a pattern of demeanor can be passed down from generation to generation as a family curse. The frustrating and disturbing atmosphere of the family by itself makes the child defend himself, behave bellicosely. The mutual support and close relationship are almost absent in such families. The violent situations are evaluated differently by kids from families where coercion is practiced. For example, the child, who is accustomed to violent communication such as barks, mandative and increased tone, begins to evaluate this demeanor as a normal one. Consequently, the child won’t see anything special in screams and beatings from the side of both teachers and children.
- Families with a genetic predisposition to coercion. Academic research shows that kids have a different genetic basis of tolerance of stress. Kids with low tolerance of stress are predisposed to coercion.