Monthly Archives: April 2018

Kid’s Aggressiveness Causes: Academic Review

Bullying at School

Write that reasons of aggressiveness are complex and diverse. In science, there are several approaches to the elucidation of the nature of the aggressiveness in kids. Let’s look at some of them.

Psychoanalytic Approach

In the psychoanalytic academic approach provided by Z. Freud, aggressiveness is considered a procreation of struggle instinct, along with the instincts of life, Eros, death, destruction. Z. Freud, examining the nature of the aggressiveness, wrote that a man continuously produces aggressive energy, which he occasionally “throws out,” sometimes even without any apparent reason.

Ethological Approach

Survival

In the ethological academic approach (K. Lorenz), it is claimed and written that aggressiveness is an integral part of human nature and originates from the innate struggle instinct for survival.

Situational Aggression Theory

In accordance with the theory of situational aggressiveness (J. Dollard) well-known in the academic world, frustration (disturbance, irritation) always leads to aggressiveness, but aggressiveness not always appears in relation to frustration. Often, because of fear of punishment, a strong response reaction of someone, the person transfers his bellicose actions on another person or object that can’t respond to him. N.E. Miller proposed systematized model that explains the appearance of such a phenomenon. He wrote that bellicose of the individual has such demeanor due to three factors: the strength of motivation to aggressiveness; the power of factors that slows down this demeanor; similarity of each potential victim with a frustrating factor.

Social Learning Theory of Aggression

Write that the theory of social learning of aggressiveness (A. Bandura) known for an academic sociology also deserves attention, which claims that bellicose demeanor is a complex skill system, which requires a comprehensive long-term learning. A person must observe the social forms of aggressiveness and assimilate them.

Only the leading academic theories are highlighted in this essay, which explain the phenomenon of aggressiveness, are highlighted in this essay. Write that the appearance of such theories demonstrates the seriousness and the ambiguity of this phenomenon, and the theories contain the idea that aggressiveness is inherent in man from birth, and aggressiveness as the social quality is acquired by baby very early, if he has the opportunity to observe its manifestations in environment life.

Bullies

Bullies

Kids, who come from the following families, have most propensities for coercion:

  • Single-parent families. The child, who is brought up by a single parent, is more inclined to use emotional coercion towards peers. And girls will be more likely to apply emotional coercion to others than boys in this family.
  • Families in which the mothers have the negative attitude to life. Mothers, who don’t trust the world of the child and the school usually don’t have the desire to cooperate with the school. In connection with this, the manifestation of coercion isn’t condemned and corrected by the mother of the child. In such cases, the mothers tend to justify coercion as a natural reaction in contact with “enemies.”
  • The imperious and the authoritarian families. Parenting in conditions of a dominant influence is characterized by unconditional submission to the will of the parents, so kids in such families are often “crushed,” and the school is a “channel,” where they splash out internally suppressed anger and fear.

Other Characteristics

  • Families, who have different conflicting family relationships. The so-called “learning model” is working in families, where adults often quarrel and swear; aggressively assert themselves in the presence of a child. The children learn and subsequently apply it in everyday life as a way to cope with the situation. Thus, a pattern of demeanor can be passed down from generation to generation as a family curse. The frustrating and disturbing atmosphere of the family by itself makes the child defend himself, behave bellicosely. The mutual support and close relationship are almost absent in such families. The violent situations are evaluated differently by kids from families where coercion is practiced. For example, the child, who is accustomed to violent communication such as barks, mandative and increased tone, begins to evaluate this demeanor as a normal one. Consequently, the child won’t see anything special in screams and beatings from the side of both teachers and children.
  • Families with a genetic predisposition to coercion. Academic research shows that kids have a different genetic basis of tolerance of stress. Kids with low tolerance of stress are predisposed to coercion.

Variety of Bullying

No Bullying

We think that school coercion includes various actions of the offender to the victim, but they are directed on the humiliation by emotional, physical, economic and sexual violence and aggression. Let’s consider the content of each of these types of bullying.

Emotional Bullying

Emotional coercion, which causes emotional stress of victim, humiliates him and lowers his self-esteem. In this case, the voice is a weapon.

Types of Emotional Bullying

Mockery

There are following types of emotional coercion:

  • Mockeries, nicknames appropriation, which constantly refer to one person, thereby offending him, endless remarks, ridicule, humiliation in front of other children in schools, and so on. This type of bullying is often directed to those victims, who have noticeable differences in physical appearance, accent, or the voice features, high or low academic progress. Name calling may also take the form of hints about the supposed sexual orientation of student. The use of anonymous phone calls is a very common form of verbal bullying, in which victims can be not only students but even the teachers from school;
  • Rejection, isolation, refusal to communicate with the victim. The initiator of this method, as a rule, is a bully. The victim is intentionally isolated, expelled or ignored by the part of the class or the entire class in school. This situation may be accompanied by the spread of notes, whisperings of insults that can be heard by the victim or degrading graffiti on the board or in public places (they refuse to play with a child and do not want to sit with him at one desk, they do not invite him to birthday parties).

Physical Bullying

Physical Strength 

Under physical coercion, we mean the use of physical force against the student, classmate from one school, resulting in the infliction of physical injury. To physical coercion, we include beating, striking, spanking, cuffs, and property damage. As the result, clothing, books and other personal belongings of the victim may be damaged, stolen or hidden. In extreme cases, a weapon, such as a knife, may be used. Such behavior is more common among boys than among girls. Usually, physical and emotional coercion go hand in hand. Ridicule and bullying can last a long time, causing traumatic experiences in victims.

Sexual Bullying

Sexual coercion or seduction is a use of a child (boy or girl) by an adult or another child to meet the sexual needs or receive benefits. Sexual seduction also includes involving a child in prostitution, pornography, denudation of sexual organs and buttocks to the child, peeping after him/her, when he/she is not aware of this (while undressing).

Economic Bullying

Economic coercion is the use of money to control another person. In this case, offenders demand money from the victim and threaten him/her, if he/she does not give it immediately. They can also extort breakfasts, tickets or money for lunch in school. Victims may also be forced to steal property. This tactic is used exclusively for laying the blame on the victim.

Forms of Bullying

Based on the foregoing, school bullying should be divided into two basic forms:

  • Physical school bullying is intentional pushing, hitting, kicking, beating, causing other injuries, etc.
  • Psychological school bullying is coercion associated with the action on the psyche, causing psychological trauma by verbal insults or threats, harassment, intimidation, by which emotional uncertainty is intentionally caused. To this form we can refer:
    • verbal bullying, where the instrument is voice (insulting name, name-calling, teasing, the spread of insulting rumors, etc.);
    • insulting gestures or actions (e.g., spitting in the victim or in his/her direction);
    • intimidation (using aggressive body language and tone of voice in order to force the victim to do or not to do something);
    • isolation (the victim is intentionally isolated or ignored by the part of students or the entire class);
    • extortion (money, food, and other things, forcing to steal anything);
    • damage and other actions with the property (theft, robbery, hiding of personal belongings of the victim);
    • school cyberbullying is humiliation via mobile phones, the Internet and other electronic devices (sending of ambiguous images and photos, name calling, spreading rumors and other things).

Bullying Conception

Bullying

Bullying is a worldwide and large-scale phenomenon. However, due to the fact that the issue of bullying continues to be scantily explored, there is still no clear scientific conception of the term. The concept of bullying is understood by some authors differently and different qualification of its kinds is given.

New Notion

Bullying is relatively a new conception of modern life. From the daily definition of the word it is transformed into an international term and contains a number of social, psychological, legal and pedagogical issues. Although, the word is a new phenomenon for us, unfortunately, we know very well, that it is one of the most topical problems of our time, requiring thorough studies of it. But the lack of sufficient information about bullying is an obstacle to the resolution of this important issue for us.

School Bullying

School

School bullying is a social phenomenon, which is widespread today in Russia, the USA, Canada, Japan and almost all the countries of Europe. At the same time, this phenomenon is little studied, but we can hardly call this term the new one. People began to speak and write about the problem of bullying at the beginning of the XX century in the world, but serious researches were started in the West nearly 30 years ago.

Bullying Parts

Bullying includes four main components:

  • aggressive and negative demeanor;
  • bullying is carried out regularly;
  • it occurs in relationships, in which the participants have unequal power;
  • such a demeanor is intentional.

Bullying Victims

The victim of bullying can be any child, but this child, who is usually chosen by someone, is weaker or somehow different from the others. The most common victims of school coercion are children who have:

  • Physical defects. The children with such disabilities as wearing glasses, hearing loss or disturbance of movements (for example, CP), those who can’t give an adequate resistance to protect themselves – are bullied more often;
  • Peculiarities of demeanor. The children with “closed” character (introverts and phlegmatic people) or children with impulsive demeanor became the target for mockeries and aggression. In some extent, hyperactive children are too intrusive, but they are more naive and direct than their peers. They are penetrating too deeply into the personal space of other children and adults: get into other people’s conversations, games, impose their views, are impatient in waiting for their turn in the game, etc. For these reasons, they are often irritating and get “back hit.”
  • Features of appearance. All that distinguishes the child’s appearance from the others, may be the object of mockeries: red hair, freckles, protruding ears, crooked legs, the special shape of the head, body weight (obesity or thinness), and so on.

Other Characteristics

  • Poor social skills. There are children, who have not developed a psychological defense against verbal and physical violence, due to the lack of experience of communication and self-expression. Compared with children, whose social skills are developed in accordance with their age, the children with underdeveloped social skills are easier to accept the role of victim.
  • Fear of school. The children often have this fear, when they go to school with negative social expectations. Sometimes this fear is induced by parents, who have had problems at school age, too. A child, who shows the uncertainty and fear of school, is the easier target for jeers of classmates;
  • The lack of life experience in a group (home children). The children, who didn’t attend the children’s group before school, may not have the necessary skills to cope with problems in communication. At the same time, they can often exceed by their erudition and abilities the other children, who went to the children garden;

Diseases. There are many disorders, which cause jibes and bullying of peers: epilepsy, tics, stuttering, speech disorders, dysgraphia (illiterate writing), dyslexia (disorders of reading learning), dyscalculia (disorders of calculation learning), etc.