Author Archives: Rudy

Obesity as a Medico-Social Issue

Young People

You may point in your essay that in economically developed countries, almost 50% of the population is overweight, and 30% of people suffer from fattiness.
Typical for modern society sedentary lifestyle, poor nutrition with increasing amounts of refined products, constant psychological stress lead to rising frequency of adiposity of people of all ages, especially young people.

Fattiness is considered to be one of the most difficult health and social tasks of modernity. Its widespread, close relationship with the way of life and extremely high mortality of its results require the combination of doctor’s фтв health authorities’ efforts in order to identify and implement large-scale prevention and medication measures in time.

Fattiness is a part of the metabolic syndrome. This syndrome connects different pathological conditions with each other (insulin resistance, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, hypertension). The syndrome is not a separate diagnosis or nosological form but at the same time has significant importance for prognosis and medication of the main disease. Ralph DeFronzo compared this situation with an iceberg: on its surface lie clinical signs that usually come to the attention of doctors (diabetes, coronary heart disease, hypertension and fattiness), and on the basis – a whole complex of metabolic disorders caused by insulin resistance. It means a condition that precedes the expansion of the disease.

Prevalence Of Obesity

Fattiness is a chronic illness, characterized by excessive accumulation of fat in the organism.

World Health Organization (WHO) regards fattiness as an epidemic that has covered millions of people. The data of the Tenth International Congress on Obesity (Sydney, September 2006) indicates that more than 250 million patients with fattiness live in the world now.

Today from 10 to 25% of the population suffer from fattiness (BMI> 30 kg/) in the majority of Western European countries, from 20 to 25% do in the US. About half of the population has excessive body weight (BMI> 25 kg/) in the industrialized countries, except Japan and China.

In many countries morbidity of fattiness has increased two times on average in the last 10 years. Calculations of WHO experts show that by 2025 the number of obese patients in the world will amount to 300 million people. A rising number of people with fattiness among children is expected. The significance of the fattiness problem is defined by risk disability of young patients and a decline in general life expectancy in connection with the expansion of severe comorbidities.

Prophylaxis And Medication Notions


The purpose of fattiness prophylaxis is to prevent the expansion of fattiness among people with normal and excess body mass, to reduce or prevent the risk of severe comorbidities.

Indications for prophylaxis realization are familial genetic predisposition to fattiness and the illnesses that accompany it (diabetes of second type, hypertension, coronary heart disease and so on), the presence of early risk factors of metabolic syndrome (hyperlipidemia, disturbance of tolerance to carbohydrates, etc.), BMI> 25 kg / among women who can not give birth.

Medication of fattiness is advised not only to reduce weight but also to prevent the illnesses, to perfect health status of patient, or to eliminate existing comorbidities.

Aim Of Obesity Medication

  • moderate weight loss with an obligatory abatement of risk factors or perfection of the comorbidities;
  • weight stabilization;
  • adequate control of associated disorders;
  • improvement of the quality and increasing of the patients’ lifetime.

What Do You Need For This?

Here is all you need for the successful programs of decreasing and maintaining the achieved body weight:

  • skilled specialists in different fields;
  • weight loss programs that include clear recommendations about nutrition, physical activity and long-term lifestyle changes of patients;
  • calculation methods of daily food caloric content and preparation of individual ration;
  • regular monitoring with obligatory registration of indicators that reflect the effectiveness of medication.

Nowadays, the method of moderate gradual weight loss, taking into account BMI and related risk factors, is accepted.

Rational Nutrition And Physical Activity Are The Basis Of Body Mass Control Program

 Physical Activity

Adiposity is the result of long-term existence of a positive energy balance, which occurs when energy flow prevails over its expenditure. As a result, this leads to fat accumulation and gain of weight. To reduce weight you must create a negative energy balance, which is achieved by reducing energy flow and increasing its expenditure through rising of physical activity.

Total energy expenditure is divided into three parts:

  1. Basal metabolism – the energy which is used to maintain metabolism at resting state (60%).
  2. Thermogenesis (specific dynamic action of food) – rising of heat production after a meal (10%).
  3. Physical activity – the energy expenditure which depends on the level of physical exertion (20-40%).


Energy flow is occurred at the expense of fat (often hidden), proteins, carbohydrates and alcohol (1g provides 7 calories). To reduce energy flow you should limit consumption of fat and alcohol especially.

Recommendations On Rational Nutrition

  • A balanced intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates in the daily ration;
  • Eat products that are high in cellular tissue and low glycemic index;
  • Consume products with low fat (saturated fat < 10%, cholesterol < 300 mg/day);
  • Eat products with vegetable proteins;
  • A reasonable approach to control and variety of food.

Caloric Value Distribution During A Day

Jumping Rope

It is recommended to have 3 main meals and 2 intermediate meals.

As a result of studies it was found, that regular omission of one of the main meals per day will significantly increase incidence of adiposity. There is a positive correlation between fattiness and breakfast omission.

There is a following recommendation in distribution of daily caloric value: breakfast – 25%, second breakfast – 10%, dinner – 35%, afternoon snack – 10%, dinner – 20%. The final meal is advisable up to the 8 p.m.

A considerable component of weight loss is an increase of physical activity. Physical exercises help to reduce weight through direct energy expenditure, and what is the most important – they help to maintain body weight. The most efficient are aerobic exercises: walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, skiing, and jumping rope.

The main conditions of the individual exercising program implementation for weight loss are regular aerobic exercises (at least 3-4 times a week), with a gradual increase of intensity and duration of training, selection of individual options, taking into account related complications. The combination of a rational nutrition with increasing of physical activity will provide a desired weight loss. Lifestyle changes mean maintaining of the achieved result.

How to Prevent Obesity

Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

The epidemic of fattiness is spreading at an unprecedented pace. We live in a world where it is so easy to earn fattiness.  This entire information means that now we must be more prudent than whenever before. You need to take everything under control to avoid the accumulation of excess fat in the body to such degree that it is bad for your health, leading to reduced life expectancy and increasing of health problems. You can achieve this by preventing and reducing any causes of obesity.

Follow the Correct Nutrition

Crossed Out Burger

  • Be sure that you get enough amounts of fruit and vegetables. New and new guidelines and the updated version of the food pyramid focusing more on fruit and vegetables (mainly vegetables) are appearing every year. Your diet is advised to be based on a greater degree of colored products, as well as protein and low fat dairy products. If all your meals contain fruit and/or vegetables (potatoes don’t count!) as the main ingredient, everything is correct.
  • Think of the rich in protein and low-fat dairy products. Protein is a necessary element of our diet. It strengthens and builds your muscular tissues as well as suppresses your appetite – it means that you will not drag on the night chocolate, thus nullifying all the efforts that you have applied during the day.
  • Limit your consumption of processed and refined foods. If there is only one cause of the adiposity epidemic, it’s due to the fact that the packaged, refined grain is one of the most affordable products on the planet. You can take a cookie, a piece of bread or a bag of chips and go away. Of course, it is convenient now, but it will bring the destruction later.

Water and Full Breakfast

  • Drink water. Advantages of it are almost innumerable. Your skin is cleaned, your organs are washed out, you reduce the level of toxins, and you feel energized in addition to losing weight. If you drink water, you don’t want to drink sweet, high-calorie drinks, wanting to compensate the temporary lack of caffeine and consuming empty calories. The research informs that in case you raise your water drinking quantity to at least a liter a day, you will lose weight gradually – without other causes. Men are recommended to drink about 3 liters, and women – about 2.
  • Have a breakfast. It is a quick way to cut down your calorie intake. Although in the morning you will feel a lack of calories, studies have shown that you are more than catch up, swallowing a big dinner. In addition, you will feel sluggish all morning, waiting for the burst of energy during your lunch break. Try to find time for a full breakfast.

Healthy Lifestyle

Running Human

  • There you do not need to be a genius: exercises are useful for you, they help to keep you in shape and can improve your mood. Ideally, you should be engaged in moderate-intensity exercise for 30 minutes a day. But no matter how much you do – it is a step in the right direction. You must not sign to the gym or buy running shoes and start to save for the inevitable knee replacement operation. Make exercises a part of your lifestyle, but not what you are forced to engage yourself in. Go hiking, swim, and sign up for the race. Even if the exercises don’t work, they are fun, and you’ll be more likely to deal with them.
  • Use active transport. If this is possible in your lifestyle, keep the car in the garage. In such a case you do not only help the environment, but also get to a point in the most useful way to be healthy. Biking or walking to your destination will give you fresh air, help to burn calories and allow you to reach the goal.
  • Focus on changing habits, and not on your weight. To avoid fattiness forever, you cannot hope that the diet or the latest fashion trends bring you permanent results that you are looking for. Health should be a way of your life – without other options, no “if” and “but” in this issue. This should be the way you live. So instead of focusing on numbers on the scales, focus on your habits.

Correct Life Regime

  • Stop sitting in front of the screen of the TV. In these days, people spend on average 34 hours a week watching television, and that’s not even including your phone, tablet, or computer. Do you imagine what you are doing when you are sitting in front of TV? You do not move and do not achieve the result, that’s for sure!
  • Get enough sleep. This, in general, is the ideal diet: sleep more, and at the same time lose weight. This is not only because you do not eat during sleep, but also because the sleep regulates hormones such as leptin and ghrelin. It is the key to ensure yourself that you do not feel hungry and satiety only. It is amazing!

Walk This Path Together

  • Keep your child’s health. If you choose the wrong way from an early age, it will be much harder to get back into normal lifestyle. So start working on the kids now! If you are sure that they take the right decisions, it will also help you to make your own correct decisions.
  • Be a role model. If your child sees you devouring a bag of chips, he will do the same. Show him that correct nutrition is something normal and for every day. If you do not want to eat potato chips, then he would not want them too.
  • Encourage your children. This means that it is necessary to promote physical activity, drink water and eat only when you are hungry. It’s good idea to suggest doing something active together or bringing a glass of water when they are thirsty. Eat together, so they do not eat alone (or more often). But do not use harmful products such as the award – they will associate it with something desirable.

How To Prevent Fattiness In Children

Child with Cake

  • Increase physical activity of your child. It is recommended that children and teenagers receive physical activity of moderate intensity on a daily basis at least for an hour a day.
  • Take into attention that there are psychological risks. Obese children suffer from social discrimination. This state of stress in a child can lead to low self-esteem. This, in turn, can slow down the intellectual and social activity. Such painful conditions should be exterminated prior to the entry into adulthood.
  • Limit the time that your child spends watching TV, video games or the Internet. It is correct to limit spending time in front of the screen to 2 hours . If the child can not control his own time on the Internet, consider the possibility of buying software on a computer with a timer function.
  • Learn about the health risks of childhood adiposity:
  • Cardiovascular diseases caused by high cholesterol, high blood pressure and abnormal glucose tolerance;
  • Asthma;
  • Diabetes of 2 type;
  • Sleep apnea;
  • Hepatic steatosis.

The Consequences of Obesity

Health of Human

First of all, during writing your essay you should know the verity. The truth is that almost everyone has an overweight. Of course, it causes displeasure. Excess weight can even cause depression and low self-esteem. And here not only human prejudices are important, the main role plays actually a real discomfort: the difficulty in finding beautiful and comfortable clothes, dissatisfaction with appearance, and health problems appeared within this condition.

Do not forget to mention in your essay when the weighing machine begins to go off-scale and the ratio of weight and height is significantly disturbed. In its turn, it is fraught with negative consequences in terms of health.

The Threats of Fattiness

Fattiness is a serious threat to health. Each person should know that adiposity is linked to a full “bunch” of very terrible disease states.

You should remember that a high percentage of body fat means:

  • cardiovascular diseases;
  • that it may be a consequence of diabetes;
  • abdominal adiposity (fat accumulation in the abdomen), which is directly connected with the development of ischemic heart disease;
  • the risk of arterial hypertension and other diseases.

Hypertension: Your Blood Pressure Rate Goes Up

Blood Pressure

The blood pressure of obese people is often so high that it creates a real threat to vessels rupture with all the ensuing consequences for health… Treatment of such hypertension, as a rule, is not very successful. The fact is that high pressure is necessary for human’s body with adiposity, because the heart needs to pump blood under higher pressure to this body.

The consequences of hypertension take more lives than AIDS, cancer and tuberculosis which are taken together.


Atherosclerosis is the most common chronic disease of the arteries, with the appearance of single and multiple of lipid niduses, mainly cholesterol sediments that are the plaques in an inner membrane of the arteries. In addition, the acute blockage (occlusion) of the arterial lumen is possible by either thrombus, or (less often) the contents of the broken plaque, or both of them simultaneously, which leads to the formation of niduses of necrosis (heart attack) or gangrene in the organ which is fed by this artery.

There are such risk factors as:

  • smoking,
  • overweight,
  • high level of cholesterol in the blood,
  • high blood pressure,
  • stress,
  • slow-moving lifestyle.

Atherosclerosis is a major factor of lethal outcomes for the majority of our contemporaries. Atherosclerosis is developed much earlier and more frequently in obese people, because of the specificity of their metabolism.

Decrease of Immunity (Metabolic Immunosuppression)

Nowadays, almost everyone knows that the role of immunity is great. In connection with the spread of AIDS, the immunity may be reduced under the influence of various factors. One of such factors is ketone bodies, which are formed in particular during the splitting of fat. A significant part of the energy is produced by the splitting of fat. It is called a «fat type» of energy of obese people. It produces a lot of ketones, and they depress the immune system. Unfortunately, tumors are one of the diseases that are developed on the background of the oppressed immunity. Adiposity is a risk factor for tumor diseases.

The First Result Is Cardiovascular Diseases

First of all, it is very destructive for the heart, because it is forced to provide blood to lots of areas of the body. The raise of the loads on the cardiovascular system leads to the cardiac enlargement with thickening it muscle walls and strengthening of the beats. The result is high blood pressure, development of hypertension. The person is cured by pills, unsuccessfully trying to reduce the pressure, but the correct treatment is to lose weight. The “extra” lipids are saved on the walls of blood vessels and form plaques that overlap lumen of blood vessels and disturb blood circulation.

If the weight exceeds the norm by more than 10%, the risk of stroke, coronary heart diseases and other ailments raises. Also, the pressure and cholesterol level are increased, glucose is accumulated as the cells are unable to split it. Load on the heart is raised even during rest state if you have overweight.

Your Liver Is Under Attack

Human Liver

The liver is the second organ, which falls under attack of fattiness. Products, which we eat, are made up of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. And carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the body. All carbohydrate food turns into glucose in a small human intestine, which enters into the blood, and then (as a reserve) to the liver where it is converted into glycogen. It is a substance that is very similar to a kissel. Normally, the liver can contain 90 g of glycogen, and the rest is converted to fat. In other words, it is sent to adipose stocks of the body. If carbohydrate intake is greater than 90 g, or there is a systematic overeating, the liver will begin to be overfilled with fats. And gradually, its cells are transformed into a source of fat reserves.

Increasing Risk of Diseases

Adiposity has influence not only on the heart, but also on the bowel. Abundant nutrition leads to over-work of the digestive system. And over time, it will not be able to cope with such load. The frequent consequences of adiposity such as gastritis with low acidity, biliary dyskinesia, cholecystitis, chronic pancreatitis, colitis are appearing. The permanent result of fattiness is hypothyroidism. It means a lack of T4 thyroxine hormone of thyroid gland in blood. As a result of hypothyroidism, metabolism of the patient slows down, it becomes sluggish and passive. This disease is so often accompanied by adiposity, that endocrinologists don’t always prescribe research on hormones of obese people with excess weight.

Respiratory Issues

Overweight and fattiness in particular impede the work of the respiratory system. There is a great probability of apnea acquisition (stop of breathing during sleep). Also, it causes the development of snore, tiredness, pain in the heart area.


Cakes, candies, pies

It is ten times more likely to find diabetes in overweight people, comparing to people with normal weight.

A clear link was noticed between the fattiness and diabetes of II type (non-insulin dependency). The opportunity of getting this disease increases with excess weight in forty times.

Hormonal Issues

There are various hormonal disorders that appear due to excess weight. Pre-diabetes state arises when the body requires more and more insulin to regulate glucose rates. The level of hormone growth is reduced. It causes development of dishormonal disturbances that can lead to the menstrual cycle disturbances or impotence. Testosterone rate is often reduced in men, and in women, in contrast, the level of testosterone is increased, and progesterone level is lowered.

Other Consequences

The extra kilos are an additional burden for the joints and spine, which have to constantly carry a huge load on themselves. If you are able to cope with excess weight in time, you will save yourself from premature deterioration of the joints and painful hurt in old age. Almost all diseases, including influenza, pneumonia, acute respiratory diseases occur to obese people much harder. They require long-term treatment and more often cause complications. It is also known that the body of obese people is much worse internalized by drugs that are introduced via injections. In such cases, the injections do not get into the muscle, as it should be, but in the fatty tissue.

Degrees of Obesity

Fatty Foods

We can say that adiposity is the big problem of modern civilized society, as the relentless statistics informs that today almost every citizen of developed countries has this problem. And if earlier adiposity was got in most cases “by inheritance,” today it affects people regardless of genetic factors.

However, it should be understood, that the movement from the first degree of fattiness to each subsequent entails more and more health problems, with which it will be much more difficult to cope. We hope that an important motivation for these indecisive people will become opportunity to clarify the current stage of adiposity and understand the problems at the threshold where they are.

How to Measure the Degree of Adiposity

Measure Weight

The easiest way to determine whether your body weight is normal, is to use the index of Broca: we should subtract 100 cm from height (in centimeters). However, there is one restriction: we can apply this calculation to people from 155 to 170 cm. In addition, the given number helps to determine normal weight, but what if a person’s weight exceeds normal limits?

To determine the degree of adiposity, it is better to calculate body mass index by the formula proposed by Belgian scientist Adolphe Quetelet. L equals to m divided to squared h.

In this formula, l – is BMI, m – is body mass in kilograms, and h – is height in meters.

For example: human growth is 160 m., human weight is 60 kg.

BMI = 60: (1,6 х 1,6) = 23,4

Now let’s turn to the table of this index interpretation:

  • 16 and less —expressed deficiency of body weight;
  • 16-18,5 — insufficient body weight;
  • 18,5 — 25 — normal;
  • 25 — 30 — excess body weight or pre-obese;
  • 30 — 35 — adiposity of the first degree;
  • 35 — 40 — adiposity of the second degree;
  • 40 and more — adiposity of the third degree.

Pre-Obese and Adiposity Of The First Degree

Now after we have decided how to measure degrees of adiposity, let’s read about them to understand what is behind the given number.

While there are no special health complaints, the person can be disturbed by his/her appearance and some physical discomfort. However, these extra kilos have already begun to affect the general health; an increase in the load on the spine, bones, joints has appeared. Because of this, joint pain, abuse in their work may appear, as well as irregularities in the musculoskeletal system.

It is important to understand that these first degrees of adiposity are usually progressive processes. If measures to stabilize weight and eliminate extra kilograms are not taken in time, the weight will come, whether slower or faster.

Adiposity of The Second Degree

The second degree of fattiness is diagnosed, when a person’s weight is above normal in 50-99%. The body responds to overweight by chronically malaise and constant tiredness, weakness, frequent irritability. Patients complain about the constant feeling of hunger and thirst, frequent or constant feeling of nausea, shortness of breath, persistent pain in all joints. Also, diseases of internal organs are starting to disturb.

Adiposity of The Third Degree

When a person’s weight is twice of the rate, we talk about the third degree of fattiness. At this degree the symptoms that were observed in the second stage are further deepened. The patients are characterized by swelling of the face and body; in addition, complaints on persistent pain of internal organs are added. In most cases they are diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and cardio vascular system. At this stage, adiposity begins to transform all systems and organs of the body.

Start Your Treatment


If a person is diagnosed with some degree of fattiness, then we can say only one thing: you should pull yourself together and start treatment. Today, there are few proven treatments of adiposity and you need to make an optimal choice together with your doctor.

Firstly, let’s resort to unmedical method. It is a diet and increasing of physical activity. Then medical techniques are followed. The preparations that suppress appetite can be prescribed to the patient, as well as drugs which are aimed to the normalization of hormonal levels. Sometimes you need to resort to surgery. Usually, such operations are made as abdominoplasty (elimination of the abdomen) and liposuction (removal of hypodermic fat from under the skin).

Degrees of Childhood Fattiness

Child With Cake

In order to determine the degree of childhood adiposity, you should compare excess weight to the length of the body. It is made by pediatrician and endocrinologist, comparing the data with special age tables.

  • I degree – 15-24 %;
  • II degree – 25-49 %;
  • III degree – 50-99 %;
  • IV degree – 100 % and more.

Prophylaxis of Childhood Obesity

Prophylaxis of the fattiness of a baby should begin not from the moment when he/she is born, but when he/she is in the womb. Predispositions to diseases appear together with the majority of taste preferences at this time.

Do not teach a child to ask for a bottle of milk at the first cry, in such a case we accustom him/her to seize up troubles and stress. There is no need to manipulate children, forcing them to eat everything to the end, motivating them by gift. This is how we teach the future generation. “You should eat everything even if you do not want, because leaving the food is bad.”

Treatment of Childhood Adiposity

The main treatment is a strict diet to reduce caloric intake from fat and carbohydrates (sweets, sugar, some fruit, and white bread). It is also advisable to replace cereals to vegetables. It will significantly decrease calorie content.

The main thing that parents should avoid is testing on child different miracle diets that promise instant results due to the complete exclusion of some food components (e.g. protein diet). The fact is that a growing body constantly undergoes a series of changes. If adults can come through it easily, it will be very harmful for the child’s body.

The second thing, which often parents do is the denial of child’s illness. Sometimes it causes irreparable damage. That’s why an endocrinologist consultation, which excludes all possible diseases and makes treatment plan and diet menu, should be appointed to kids. It is not necessary to self-medicate, because only a doctor can determine the reduction of caloric level of the future menu and that will not adversely affect health and bring visible results. Also, therapeutic exercises with instructor can be included in the treatment plan. Your instructor will determine the necessary level of load and take into account the individual characteristics of the organism.

The Notion of Obesity


When writing your essay, it’s better to mention that fattiness is a disease in which the subcutaneous and other tissues are accumulated by excess fat. Overweight is, unfortunately, not just an aesthetic problem that can seriously poison the life of a man. The extra weight is often reflected in the general health and can cause not only serious diseases for life, but even lead to death. Thus, the frequent consequences of obesity are serious diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, diseases of heart, blood vessels, kidneys, and liver, gastrointestinal tract.
Fattiness is a disease that must be healed competently and without fail. Today fattiness is researched by nutritionists and endocrinologists. Why is it done by them? The answer is in major causes of disease, including a metabolic disorder, incorrect and often over-eating. Unfortunately, many people suspect themselves to have this disease, but for various reasons, they delay a visit to a specialist.

The Main Types of Obesity

There are different types of adiposity, each one depending on the hormonal background.

The following subtypes of alimentary fattiness (most common form), which is associated with improper diet and less active lifestyle, are:

  • Adiposity of the female type (pear) or low fattiness is characterized by putting off the main mass of fat on the buttocks thighs and in the lower part of the abdomen. Such fattiness is less dangerous for women, and does not provide serious hormonal disorders. Fatty tissues are accumulated in the bulk of body under the skin. If their amount is not critical, it does not make significant obstacle for normal functioning of internals. But if you are diagnosed to have “adiposity,” health problems won’t be avoided without proper treatment. Except for the elaboration of proper diet, various anti-cellulite and massage treatments are recommended in such case of fattiness.
  • Adiposity of the male type (apple) or upper obesity is the most dangerous type of fattiness, where fat tissue is accumulated in the abdomen and on the internals. This case of adiposity is a serious threat even with a relatively small amount of excess weight, because fat on the internal organs complicates their normal work. The abdominal obesity is very simple to be diagnosed. If you have the ratio of waist size to thighs volume of more than 1 for men and 0.8 for women, it means that you have a cause for worriment. Especially if you have a large number of extra kilos.
  • Mixed type of adiposity means that fat tissue is disposed evenly throughout the body. It often appears among children and also needs correction.

The Main Criteria of Adiposity

Body mass index (BMI) is the most traditional criterion which defines the fattiness. Specialists consider a human to have overweight, if the BMI is in the range between 25 and 29.9 points. If a human has fattiness – his BMI is over 30 points.

“Critical Adiposity” means that a person has 50%-100% of normal weight and his/her BMI is over 40 points, or when overweight seriously affects health.

What Fattiness Is Caused by?

Causes of Obesity

Fattiness occurs when a person consumes more calories than spends. Many people have this situation as the result of overeating and sedentary lifestyle. But there are other factors that also play a role in the formation of fattiness. They are:

  • When you get older, your body’s ability to absorb food slows down and you do not need as many calories to maintain a healthy weight. That’s why people say, that, with age, they eat the same amount of food and are engaged in the same activities, but their weight increases.
  • Women are generally more often overweight than men. This is due to the fact that men have a higher metabolic rate (i.e. during the state of calmness they spend more energy) than women because men need more calories to maintain body weight. Also, when women reach menopause, metabolic rate decreases. That is why many women gain weight after menopause.
  • Adiposity (exactly like thinness) can be inherited. If your biological mother is slim, in 75% of cases you have the chance to inherit this feature and vice versa, if your mother suffers from fattiness, you are to have problems with excess weight. However, many people can be genetically predisposed to adiposity, but they don`t gain excess weight.
  • The environmental factor. Although genes are an important factor in many cases of fattiness, the environment also plays a significant role. Environmental factor also includes a person’s way of life, eating behavior and general physical activity.

Extra Reasons of Fattiness


  • Physical activity. Active people need more calories than passive ones. In addition, physical activity tends to decrease appetite in obese people while increasing the body’s ability to metabolism of fats as an energy source. Most of the cases of fattiness are associated with lower levels of daily physical activity.
  • The psychological factor. Psychological factor also influences on the increase in weight. Many people eat because of negative emotions such as boredom, sadness or anger. People who have difficulties with management of weight may face more serious emotional dependence on food and stop controlling how much they eat.
  • Some diseases can lead to fattiness. They include hormonal problems such as hypothyroidism (slow metabolism related to improper functioning of the thyroid gland), depression, and some rare brain diseases that provoke overeating.
  • Some preparations, such as steroids and antidepressants, can cause excessive gain of weight.

Emotional Factor of the Fattiness

Complexes and emotional suffering are the most painful aspects of adiposity. A false stereotype was formed in our minds about people who are obese, they are often considered to be voracious, lazy and weak-willed individuals. That’s why obese people often face prejudices and discrimination at work, at school, during search of work, and when they are trying to build social ties. Feelings of rejection, shame, or depression are common problems for people who are overweight.

Bullying Surmounting: Ideas for a Paper

No to Bullying

Note in your paper that the psycho-pedagogical correctional work should ultimately be aimed not at getting rid of aggressiveness and bullying, but on the elimination of the leading causes and on the extension of active instruments that are used in the child’s demeanor. The implementation of a complex correctional program of skill development and constructive management of student`s aggressiveness is one of the main tasks of social and pedagogical work to overcome school bullying.

Program Principles


This program should be based on the following psycho-pedagogical principles (indicate them in the paper):

  • systematization of corrective, preventive and developing tasks;
  • unity of correction and diagnostics;
  • priority of the correction of the causal type;
  • consideration of the age and the psychological and individual characteristics of the client;
  • the complexity of the methods of psychological influence;
  • active involvement of the immediate social environment and participation in a correctional program.


Human Aggressiveness

The following directions, in which work on the correction of aggression should be carried out, are mentioned in psychological and educational literature and practice. They are:

  • training invasive kids of the ways to express anger in a socially acceptable manner;
  • teaching kids of the self-control techniques and skills of self-management, improvement of communication skills in potential conflict situations;
  • formation of personality traits of adolescents as empathy and trust to people (an effective way to implement this direction is the method of induction of incompatible responses, which includes humor and laugh, as well as focusing on the state of other people).


The socio-pedagogical activity with invasive kids will be more effective, if it is implemented on the basis of a methodology of easing kid’s aggressiveness, involving the use of the following forms of work (your paper should also contain them):

  • refocusing of activity and attention of the kids in a constructive direction;
  • preventive conversations aimed at making the kids understand the need for peaceful resolution of the conflict, backed by reference to the law and the rights of other people;
  • role-playing games that allow playing real-life situations and teaching kids socially acceptable demeanor in different circumstances;
  • assignments that help to teach the kids the responsive and attentive relation to each other and people around (writing of congratulations, participation in charity events, etc.);
  • exercises of performing the actions due to the examples, following the rules, pictorial and physical activity;
  • psychological training (to take a deep breath, count to 10, imagine the consequences of action, etc.);
  • tempering of the body (washing with cold water, etc.);
  • training of the will (promises not to conflict and not to offend others, following the fulfillment of this promises every day, etc.);
  • self-reports (summarizing the previous day, analysis of demeanor and actions, etc.)

Work with Parents

Mark in the paper that the work with parents, the discussion with them the reasons of bullying is one of the ways to overcome school bullying. The restraint in the assessment is important when talking with parents of the guilty kids. After all, most of the guilty kids in the bullying situations are children from poor families. The danger with the parents of victims is not to take a position of “full-dress uniform” defense, i.e. to protect the school’s reputation and not a victim. If the conversation is about what can and should be done to change the situation, we can solve this problem together.

Doll Therapy

In practice, social workers and psychologists can use art therapy methods to reduce the level of aggressiveness. You can point in the paper that one of these methods is doll therapy. This method is particularly effective in working with younger kids. Procedure technique of doll therapy is that a story is played for a child with his valuable character. It is related to the situation that causes trauma to him.

Tell about the division of such therapy in the paper. Doll therapy can be subdivided into expressive (active) and impressive (passive), depending on what position is taken by a child while exercising. In the first case, the child creates himself, he is an actor and director of the play, in the second case he “consumes” art, i.e., he is a spectator. Doll therapy can be performed both individually and in groups. An individual form of work is applied only by a psychologist in his practice. The group form may be carried out independently by the social worker. Only if it is necessary, he can resort to the help of a psychologist. Pay attention in the paper that, unfortunately, this method is not well developed in practice of the social teacher.

Bullying Partakers: Writing Prompts

 Bullying Stops Here

Let us find out in our writing the typological features of partakers of bullying. There are following features of the partakers.


Define in writing that “persecutors” with low sociometric status have the highest satisfaction rate in the communication, they are clearly aware of the social circle in which they are accepted. They are significantly more authoritarian than other partakers of the bullying. This feature helps them to subordinate “helpers,” it is an internal justification during “persecution” of victims and creates a sense of subjective rightness. “Persecutors,” despite their role, consider themselves too good; they want to be even less good than they are. Also, the “persecutors” do not seek to be patient. In general, the “persecutors” have fairly high level of self-esteem and a lot of pretensions.


Bullying Victim

Point out in writing that the “victims” have the lowest sociometric status and satisfaction rate in the communication. It shows their low position in the class. “Victims” are the most dependent, “weak” in comparison with other partakers of bullying. Self-concept of the “victims” is the lowest in comparison with other groups, and the level of pretensions is quite high, so the “victim” is very unhappy, they do not accept themselves and perhaps want to change. Levels of anxiety, difficulties in communication and conflicts are the highest among the “victims.”


They have a fairly low sociometric status. Specify in writing that they do not achieve respect in the classroom. “Helpers” are very dependent. It makes them subordination subject to the “persecutors,” but at the same time, they are sufficiently authoritarian, which creates an internal discomfort in them. “Helpers” have the highest rate of active direct bullying, as they are often name-calling, hitting, and “persecutors” just choose a goal and think over a plan. “Helpers” are experiencing an acute shortage of communication with their fathers. Perhaps they find out the father qualities in the “persecutors,” and therefore seek to help them even in persecution. “Helpers” have average indicators of self-concept to the level of pretensions.


Defender Bullying

Inform us due to your writing that “defenders” have the highest sociometric status and relatively high satisfaction rate in communication, i.e., they are generally satisfied with the occupied position, which is also quite high. They more rarely than others manifest bullying towards classmates and are bullied. It confirms the correctness of dividing into groups. The “defenders” have a fairly high self-concept, especially in terms of reliability and understanding. Ideally, they want to be very good, kindness to them is a constant value. These features allow them to understand the “victims,” sympathize and help them.

Neutral Participants

Pay attention in writing that “neutral partakers” have enough high sociometric status and awareness rate of positive relations. They are the least dependent, which allows them not to interfere in the conflicts. They just look from the side, but it is not always a good thing. “Neutral partakers” are viewers, for whom performance is played. In many respects, their inaction provokes bullying. Furthermore, “persecutors” are often only executors of the will of “neutral partakers.” They have the highest level of pretensions by “tolerance” quality. This once again confirms the correctness of dividing into groups. Only tolerance allows them to stay away from the conflict.

Domestic Reasons: Essay Ideas on Bullying

Don’t Bully

Consider in your essay the most common “family” causes of bullying. They are noted by authors such as L. Berkowitz, R. Baron and D. Richardson and others.

Rejection of Children

Note in your essay that invasive attacks often occur in unwanted kids. Some parents are not prepared for the appearance of their child. But, they still give birth to kids, because of the impossibility of abortion for medical reasons. Although parents cannot tell him/her directly that he/she is not expected and wanted, he/she feels it, because they “read” information from the gestures and intonation of their parents. Such kids are trying, by all means, to prove that they have a right to exist, that they are good. They are trying to win so much-needed parental love and, as a rule, do it aggressively.

Disrespect to a Child

Point in an essay that invasive reactions can be caused by incorrect and tactless criticism, insulting and demeaning remarks by adults. All that is able to awake not only anger but also frank rage. Disrespect for the child’s personality, public disparaging remarks about him/her rise deep and serious complexes, cause self-doubt and uncertainty in the life of kids.

Prohibition on Physical Activity

If the child was not able to openly show his/her positive and negative emotions during the whole day, could not physically blow off steam, his/her bellicosity would be caused by accumulated excess energy. In its turn, it has no possibility to disappear without leaving a trace.

Discontent of Yourself

Often it is not caused by objective reasons, but a lack of emotional encouragement from the parents, which leads to the fact that kids do not learn how to love themselves. For a child (and adult), it is vital that he/she is loved not for something, but just as he/she is (unmotivated). The most severe punishment does not cause irreparable harm to the child as it leads to lack of self-love and encouragement. If the child does not love himself/herself, considers himself/herself unworthy of love, so he/she will not love others. In this case, an invasive attitude towards the world from his/her part is quite logical.

Influence of Foodstuffs


Indicate in an essay that the aggressiveness of the child can be caused by nutrition. The relationship between increasing of anxiety, nervousness and aggressiveness and consumption of chocolate is proved. Studies are conducted abroad, examining the relationship between the consumption of potato chips, hamburgers, sweet soda and increasing of aggressiveness. Designate in an essay that numerous studies have shown the influence of cholesterol in blood on the aggressiveness of the human (including the character of bellicosity). Thus, there is a lower level of cholesterol in the blood observed in the majority of suicides and those who committed suicide attempts. Low cholesterol level leads to passive aggressiveness.

Other Influences

You can talk in an essay about the impact of noise, vibrations, tightness, air temperature. Scientists have proved that the majority of the “hot” conflicts arise in the heat. This is not surprising because the heat is a stress for our body. That is why we are especially irritable and tense in the heat. Tightness is another powerful provocateur of our aggressiveness. Almost everybody was an eyewitness and even a partaker of unpleasant nasty party quarrels in a crowded bus or subway. Tightness influences the child no less strongly than the adults. It is desirable, therefore, that the child has his own room. If this is not possible, you need to provide him/her with his/her corner in one of the rooms so that he/she will not feel constrained.

Bullying Causes: Coping with Assignment


Mark in an assignment that the problem of bullying in schools has not yet received proper attention in the various countries. School bullying has reasons as any phenomenon. They are connected with external factors (situation of interactions, features of classmates, adult demeanor), and with the personal characteristics of the kids, who are included in the situation of school bullying. In terms of social significance, degrading attitude from the side of other kids causes socially dangerous forms of demeanor. They are the manifestation of isolation, coercion, suicidality and psychoactive drugs, Internet, games and television dependencies. Difficulties in the interaction with others may occur in adolescence and youth, and even in adulthood.

The First Reason

You may assume in an assignment that the first cause of kid’s signs of bellicose demeanor in school is in the nature of socialization: the most economical way of socialization for the child is an imitation of an adult. The child, seeing aggressiveness of adults, begins to imitate them. Aggressiveness is not yet a feature of the child’s character; it is taken as “peeped” way of the demeanor of adults. If at this stage the aggressiveness is not suppressed, if the child is not taught other ways of demeanor in return, if, indeed, it is supported by adults, then very soon the child will begin consciously demonstrate bellicose demeanor.

Self – Defense


Indicate in an assignment that bullying may also occur as a self-defense mechanism, as a manifestation of fear or anxiety in those cases when adolescent regards a real or imaginary danger. By being invasive, he seeks to protect himself from something. The illusion of courage is created in him. Hostility and aggressiveness are linked in a teenager, when he was once a child, with undeveloped basic trust to the world. The degree of development of the sense of trust people and the world depends on the quality of maternal care received by him. Full maternal care provides self-confidence in the child, no fear to take the initiative, make mistakes, etc. If a child does not receive full maternal care, the protective reaction in the form of invasive demeanor will be produced and attached.

It is a good idea to make supposition in an assignment that if aggressiveness is inherent in man as a defense mechanism, it may acquire negative or relatively positive manifestations, depending on the social environment, in which the child grows and develops, the nature of social experience, which he acquires by living among the people. There is a definite dependence of bullying from family structure, from relationships in it.

Inferiority Feeling

Inferiority Complex

One of the causes of bullying is an aspiration to overcome feelings of inferiority, which the teenager has for quite a long time. Note in an assignment that immaturity, lack of independence, lack of confidence lead to painful experiences of their subordinate position. There is the desire to achieve superiority over the stronger and more skillful person. Of course, this is the cause of social and pedagogical order. Adults, who cannot or do not want to understand the feelings of their child, who humiliate him/her, show their superiority, stimulate the emergence of invasive demeanor.

Kid’s Aggressiveness Causes: Academic Review

Bullying at School

Write that reasons of aggressiveness are complex and diverse. In science, there are several approaches to the elucidation of the nature of the aggressiveness in kids. Let’s look at some of them.

Psychoanalytic Approach

In the psychoanalytic academic approach provided by Z. Freud, aggressiveness is considered a procreation of struggle instinct, along with the instincts of life, Eros, death, destruction. Z. Freud, examining the nature of the aggressiveness, wrote that a man continuously produces aggressive energy, which he occasionally “throws out,” sometimes even without any apparent reason.

Ethological Approach


In the ethological academic approach (K. Lorenz), it is claimed and written that aggressiveness is an integral part of human nature and originates from the innate struggle instinct for survival.

Situational Aggression Theory

In accordance with the theory of situational aggressiveness (J. Dollard) well-known in the academic world, frustration (disturbance, irritation) always leads to aggressiveness, but aggressiveness not always appears in relation to frustration. Often, because of fear of punishment, a strong response reaction of someone, the person transfers his bellicose actions on another person or object that can’t respond to him. N.E. Miller proposed systematized model that explains the appearance of such a phenomenon. He wrote that bellicose of the individual has such demeanor due to three factors: the strength of motivation to aggressiveness; the power of factors that slows down this demeanor; similarity of each potential victim with a frustrating factor.

Social Learning Theory of Aggression

Write that the theory of social learning of aggressiveness (A. Bandura) known for an academic sociology also deserves attention, which claims that bellicose demeanor is a complex skill system, which requires a comprehensive long-term learning. A person must observe the social forms of aggressiveness and assimilate them.

Only the leading academic theories are highlighted in this essay, which explain the phenomenon of aggressiveness, are highlighted in this essay. Write that the appearance of such theories demonstrates the seriousness and the ambiguity of this phenomenon, and the theories contain the idea that aggressiveness is inherent in man from birth, and aggressiveness as the social quality is acquired by baby very early, if he has the opportunity to observe its manifestations in environment life.



Kids, who come from the following families, have most propensities for coercion:

  • Single-parent families. The child, who is brought up by a single parent, is more inclined to use emotional coercion towards peers. And girls will be more likely to apply emotional coercion to others than boys in this family.
  • Families in which the mothers have the negative attitude to life. Mothers, who don’t trust the world of the child and the school usually don’t have the desire to cooperate with the school. In connection with this, the manifestation of coercion isn’t condemned and corrected by the mother of the child. In such cases, the mothers tend to justify coercion as a natural reaction in contact with “enemies.”
  • The imperious and the authoritarian families. Parenting in conditions of a dominant influence is characterized by unconditional submission to the will of the parents, so kids in such families are often “crushed,” and the school is a “channel,” where they splash out internally suppressed anger and fear.

Other Characteristics

  • Families, who have different conflicting family relationships. The so-called “learning model” is working in families, where adults often quarrel and swear; aggressively assert themselves in the presence of a child. The children learn and subsequently apply it in everyday life as a way to cope with the situation. Thus, a pattern of demeanor can be passed down from generation to generation as a family curse. The frustrating and disturbing atmosphere of the family by itself makes the child defend himself, behave bellicosely. The mutual support and close relationship are almost absent in such families. The violent situations are evaluated differently by kids from families where coercion is practiced. For example, the child, who is accustomed to violent communication such as barks, mandative and increased tone, begins to evaluate this demeanor as a normal one. Consequently, the child won’t see anything special in screams and beatings from the side of both teachers and children.
  • Families with a genetic predisposition to coercion. Academic research shows that kids have a different genetic basis of tolerance of stress. Kids with low tolerance of stress are predisposed to coercion.