You may point in your essay that in economically developed countries, almost 50% of the population is overweight, and 30% of people suffer from fattiness.
Typical for modern society sedentary lifestyle, poor nutrition with increasing amounts of refined products, constant psychological stress lead to rising frequency of adiposity of people of all ages, especially young people.
Fattiness is considered to be one of the most difficult health and social tasks of modernity. Its widespread, close relationship with the way of life and extremely high mortality of its results require the combination of doctor’s фтв health authorities’ efforts in order to identify and implement large-scale prevention and medication measures in time.
Fattiness is a part of the metabolic syndrome. This syndrome connects different pathological conditions with each other (insulin resistance, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, hypertension). The syndrome is not a separate diagnosis or nosological form but at the same time has significant importance for prognosis and medication of the main disease. Ralph DeFronzo compared this situation with an iceberg: on its surface lie clinical signs that usually come to the attention of doctors (diabetes, coronary heart disease, hypertension and fattiness), and on the basis – a whole complex of metabolic disorders caused by insulin resistance. It means a condition that precedes the expansion of the disease.
Prevalence Of Obesity
Fattiness is a chronic illness, characterized by excessive accumulation of fat in the organism.
World Health Organization (WHO) regards fattiness as an epidemic that has covered millions of people. The data of the Tenth International Congress on Obesity (Sydney, September 2006) indicates that more than 250 million patients with fattiness live in the world now.
Today from 10 to 25% of the population suffer from fattiness (BMI> 30 kg/) in the majority of Western European countries, from 20 to 25% do in the US. About half of the population has excessive body weight (BMI> 25 kg/) in the industrialized countries, except Japan and China.
In many countries morbidity of fattiness has increased two times on average in the last 10 years. Calculations of WHO experts show that by 2025 the number of obese patients in the world will amount to 300 million people. A rising number of people with fattiness among children is expected. The significance of the fattiness problem is defined by risk disability of young patients and a decline in general life expectancy in connection with the expansion of severe comorbidities.
Prophylaxis And Medication Notions
The purpose of fattiness prophylaxis is to prevent the expansion of fattiness among people with normal and excess body mass, to reduce or prevent the risk of severe comorbidities.
Indications for prophylaxis realization are familial genetic predisposition to fattiness and the illnesses that accompany it (diabetes of second type, hypertension, coronary heart disease and so on), the presence of early risk factors of metabolic syndrome (hyperlipidemia, disturbance of tolerance to carbohydrates, etc.), BMI> 25 kg / among women who can not give birth.
Medication of fattiness is advised not only to reduce weight but also to prevent the illnesses, to perfect health status of patient, or to eliminate existing comorbidities.
Aim Of Obesity Medication
- moderate weight loss with an obligatory abatement of risk factors or perfection of the comorbidities;
- weight stabilization;
- adequate control of associated disorders;
- improvement of the quality and increasing of the patients’ lifetime.
What Do You Need For This?
Here is all you need for the successful programs of decreasing and maintaining the achieved body weight:
- skilled specialists in different fields;
- weight loss programs that include clear recommendations about nutrition, physical activity and long-term lifestyle changes of patients;
- calculation methods of daily food caloric content and preparation of individual ration;
- regular monitoring with obligatory registration of indicators that reflect the effectiveness of medication.
Nowadays, the method of moderate gradual weight loss, taking into account BMI and related risk factors, is accepted.
Rational Nutrition And Physical Activity Are The Basis Of Body Mass Control Program
Adiposity is the result of long-term existence of a positive energy balance, which occurs when energy flow prevails over its expenditure. As a result, this leads to fat accumulation and gain of weight. To reduce weight you must create a negative energy balance, which is achieved by reducing energy flow and increasing its expenditure through rising of physical activity.
Total energy expenditure is divided into three parts:
- Basal metabolism – the energy which is used to maintain metabolism at resting state (60%).
- Thermogenesis (specific dynamic action of food) – rising of heat production after a meal (10%).
- Physical activity – the energy expenditure which depends on the level of physical exertion (20-40%).
Energy flow is occurred at the expense of fat (often hidden), proteins, carbohydrates and alcohol (1g provides 7 calories). To reduce energy flow you should limit consumption of fat and alcohol especially.
Recommendations On Rational Nutrition
- A balanced intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates in the daily ration;
- Eat products that are high in cellular tissue and low glycemic index;
- Consume products with low fat (saturated fat < 10%, cholesterol < 300 mg/day);
- Eat products with vegetable proteins;
- A reasonable approach to control and variety of food.
Caloric Value Distribution During A Day
It is recommended to have 3 main meals and 2 intermediate meals.
As a result of studies it was found, that regular omission of one of the main meals per day will significantly increase incidence of adiposity. There is a positive correlation between fattiness and breakfast omission.
There is a following recommendation in distribution of daily caloric value: breakfast – 25%, second breakfast – 10%, dinner – 35%, afternoon snack – 10%, dinner – 20%. The final meal is advisable up to the 8 p.m.
A considerable component of weight loss is an increase of physical activity. Physical exercises help to reduce weight through direct energy expenditure, and what is the most important – they help to maintain body weight. The most efficient are aerobic exercises: walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, skiing, and jumping rope.
The main conditions of the individual exercising program implementation for weight loss are regular aerobic exercises (at least 3-4 times a week), with a gradual increase of intensity and duration of training, selection of individual options, taking into account related complications. The combination of a rational nutrition with increasing of physical activity will provide a desired weight loss. Lifestyle changes mean maintaining of the achieved result.