We think that school coercion includes various actions of the offender to the victim, but they are directed on the humiliation by emotional, physical, economic and sexual violence and aggression. Let’s consider the content of each of these types of bullying.
Emotional coercion, which causes emotional stress of victim, humiliates him and lowers his self-esteem. In this case, the voice is a weapon.
Types of Emotional Bullying
There are following types of emotional coercion:
- Mockeries, nicknames appropriation, which constantly refer to one person, thereby offending him, endless remarks, ridicule, humiliation in front of other children in schools, and so on. This type of bullying is often directed to those victims, who have noticeable differences in physical appearance, accent, or the voice features, high or low academic progress. Name calling may also take the form of hints about the supposed sexual orientation of student. The use of anonymous phone calls is a very common form of verbal bullying, in which victims can be not only students but even the teachers from school;
- Rejection, isolation, refusal to communicate with the victim. The initiator of this method, as a rule, is a bully. The victim is intentionally isolated, expelled or ignored by the part of the class or the entire class in school. This situation may be accompanied by the spread of notes, whisperings of insults that can be heard by the victim or degrading graffiti on the board or in public places (they refuse to play with a child and do not want to sit with him at one desk, they do not invite him to birthday parties).
Under physical coercion, we mean the use of physical force against the student, classmate from one school, resulting in the infliction of physical injury. To physical coercion, we include beating, striking, spanking, cuffs, and property damage. As the result, clothing, books and other personal belongings of the victim may be damaged, stolen or hidden. In extreme cases, a weapon, such as a knife, may be used. Such behavior is more common among boys than among girls. Usually, physical and emotional coercion go hand in hand. Ridicule and bullying can last a long time, causing traumatic experiences in victims.
Sexual coercion or seduction is a use of a child (boy or girl) by an adult or another child to meet the sexual needs or receive benefits. Sexual seduction also includes involving a child in prostitution, pornography, denudation of sexual organs and buttocks to the child, peeping after him/her, when he/she is not aware of this (while undressing).
Economic coercion is the use of money to control another person. In this case, offenders demand money from the victim and threaten him/her, if he/she does not give it immediately. They can also extort breakfasts, tickets or money for lunch in school. Victims may also be forced to steal property. This tactic is used exclusively for laying the blame on the victim.
Forms of Bullying
Based on the foregoing, school bullying should be divided into two basic forms:
- Physical school bullying is intentional pushing, hitting, kicking, beating, causing other injuries, etc.
- Psychological school bullying is coercion associated with the action on the psyche, causing psychological trauma by verbal insults or threats, harassment, intimidation, by which emotional uncertainty is intentionally caused. To this form we can refer:
- verbal bullying, where the instrument is voice (insulting name, name-calling, teasing, the spread of insulting rumors, etc.);
- insulting gestures or actions (e.g., spitting in the victim or in his/her direction);
- intimidation (using aggressive body language and tone of voice in order to force the victim to do or not to do something);
- isolation (the victim is intentionally isolated or ignored by the part of students or the entire class);
- extortion (money, food, and other things, forcing to steal anything);
- damage and other actions with the property (theft, robbery, hiding of personal belongings of the victim);
- school cyberbullying is humiliation via mobile phones, the Internet and other electronic devices (sending of ambiguous images and photos, name calling, spreading rumors and other things).