Variety of Bullying

No Bullying

We think that school coercion includes various actions of the offender to the victim, but they are directed on the humiliation by emotional, physical, economic and sexual violence and aggression. Let’s consider the content of each of these types of bullying.

Emotional Bullying

Emotional coercion, which causes emotional stress of victim, humiliates him and lowers his self-esteem. In this case, the voice is a weapon.

Types of Emotional Bullying

Mockery

There are following types of emotional coercion:

  • Mockeries, nicknames appropriation, which constantly refer to one person, thereby offending him, endless remarks, ridicule, humiliation in front of other children in schools, and so on. This type of bullying is often directed to those victims, who have noticeable differences in physical appearance, accent, or the voice features, high or low academic progress. Name calling may also take the form of hints about the supposed sexual orientation of student. The use of anonymous phone calls is a very common form of verbal bullying, in which victims can be not only students but even the teachers from school;
  • Rejection, isolation, refusal to communicate with the victim. The initiator of this method, as a rule, is a bully. The victim is intentionally isolated, expelled or ignored by the part of the class or the entire class in school. This situation may be accompanied by the spread of notes, whisperings of insults that can be heard by the victim or degrading graffiti on the board or in public places (they refuse to play with a child and do not want to sit with him at one desk, they do not invite him to birthday parties).

Physical Bullying

Physical Strength 

Under physical coercion, we mean the use of physical force against the student, classmate from one school, resulting in the infliction of physical injury. To physical coercion, we include beating, striking, spanking, cuffs, and property damage. As the result, clothing, books and other personal belongings of the victim may be damaged, stolen or hidden. In extreme cases, a weapon, such as a knife, may be used. Such behavior is more common among boys than among girls. Usually, physical and emotional coercion go hand in hand. Ridicule and bullying can last a long time, causing traumatic experiences in victims.

Sexual Bullying

Sexual coercion or seduction is a use of a child (boy or girl) by an adult or another child to meet the sexual needs or receive benefits. Sexual seduction also includes involving a child in prostitution, pornography, denudation of sexual organs and buttocks to the child, peeping after him/her, when he/she is not aware of this (while undressing).

Economic Bullying

Economic coercion is the use of money to control another person. In this case, offenders demand money from the victim and threaten him/her, if he/she does not give it immediately. They can also extort breakfasts, tickets or money for lunch in school. Victims may also be forced to steal property. This tactic is used exclusively for laying the blame on the victim.

Forms of Bullying

Based on the foregoing, school bullying should be divided into two basic forms:

  • Physical school bullying is intentional pushing, hitting, kicking, beating, causing other injuries, etc.
  • Psychological school bullying is coercion associated with the action on the psyche, causing psychological trauma by verbal insults or threats, harassment, intimidation, by which emotional uncertainty is intentionally caused. To this form we can refer:
    • verbal bullying, where the instrument is voice (insulting name, name-calling, teasing, the spread of insulting rumors, etc.);
    • insulting gestures or actions (e.g., spitting in the victim or in his/her direction);
    • intimidation (using aggressive body language and tone of voice in order to force the victim to do or not to do something);
    • isolation (the victim is intentionally isolated or ignored by the part of students or the entire class);
    • extortion (money, food, and other things, forcing to steal anything);
    • damage and other actions with the property (theft, robbery, hiding of personal belongings of the victim);
    • school cyberbullying is humiliation via mobile phones, the Internet and other electronic devices (sending of ambiguous images and photos, name calling, spreading rumors and other things).

Bullying Conception

Bullying

Bullying is a worldwide and large-scale phenomenon. However, due to the fact that the issue of bullying continues to be scantily explored, there is still no clear scientific conception of the term. The concept of bullying is understood by some authors differently and different qualification of its kinds is given.

New Notion

Bullying is relatively a new conception of modern life. From the daily definition of the word it is transformed into an international term and contains a number of social, psychological, legal and pedagogical issues. Although, the word is a new phenomenon for us, unfortunately, we know very well, that it is one of the most topical problems of our time, requiring thorough studies of it. But the lack of sufficient information about bullying is an obstacle to the resolution of this important issue for us.

School Bullying

School

School bullying is a social phenomenon, which is widespread today in Russia, the USA, Canada, Japan and almost all the countries of Europe. At the same time, this phenomenon is little studied, but we can hardly call this term the new one. People began to speak and write about the problem of bullying at the beginning of the XX century in the world, but serious researches were started in the West nearly 30 years ago.

Bullying Parts

Bullying includes four main components:

  • aggressive and negative demeanor;
  • bullying is carried out regularly;
  • it occurs in relationships, in which the participants have unequal power;
  • such a demeanor is intentional.

Bullying Victims

The victim of bullying can be any child, but this child, who is usually chosen by someone, is weaker or somehow different from the others. The most common victims of school coercion are children who have:

  • Physical defects. The children with such disabilities as wearing glasses, hearing loss or disturbance of movements (for example, CP), those who can’t give an adequate resistance to protect themselves – are bullied more often;
  • Peculiarities of demeanor. The children with “closed” character (introverts and phlegmatic people) or children with impulsive demeanor became the target for mockeries and aggression. In some extent, hyperactive children are too intrusive, but they are more naive and direct than their peers. They are penetrating too deeply into the personal space of other children and adults: get into other people’s conversations, games, impose their views, are impatient in waiting for their turn in the game, etc. For these reasons, they are often irritating and get “back hit.”
  • Features of appearance. All that distinguishes the child’s appearance from the others, may be the object of mockeries: red hair, freckles, protruding ears, crooked legs, the special shape of the head, body weight (obesity or thinness), and so on.

Other Characteristics

  • Poor social skills. There are children, who have not developed a psychological defense against verbal and physical violence, due to the lack of experience of communication and self-expression. Compared with children, whose social skills are developed in accordance with their age, the children with underdeveloped social skills are easier to accept the role of victim.
  • Fear of school. The children often have this fear, when they go to school with negative social expectations. Sometimes this fear is induced by parents, who have had problems at school age, too. A child, who shows the uncertainty and fear of school, is the easier target for jeers of classmates;
  • The lack of life experience in a group (home children). The children, who didn’t attend the children’s group before school, may not have the necessary skills to cope with problems in communication. At the same time, they can often exceed by their erudition and abilities the other children, who went to the children garden;

Diseases. There are many disorders, which cause jibes and bullying of peers: epilepsy, tics, stuttering, speech disorders, dysgraphia (illiterate writing), dyslexia (disorders of reading learning), dyscalculia (disorders of calculation learning), etc.

Ideas on Politic Science Papers: Get Some Benefits

Person Delivering Speech

According to the statements presented in our previous posts, the majority of political topics are complicated for ordinary students, which often lead to problems and mistakes committed during the work on their college papers. Sure, it is a pity especially if you are good at this subject and a teacher usually praises you. It will be extremely displeasing to fail while working on an essay when you are free to pick any topic. This is your big advantage, so it is essential to use it in the most effective and beneficial way. Do not be afraid of challenges. The themes which we offer are quite simple and you can prevent all difficulties thanks to our prompts and hints presented here as well.

Influence of the Media on Politics

This topic is quite creative and specific. You will have not only read boring theory and learn facts presented in textbooks but also present your personal thoughts and provide a kind of investigation in order to reveal trustworthy points and make your paper amusing for the audience. Without any doubts, the modern media can develop a truly great impact on the political life in the country. Sometimes it may even cause grand manifestations or deplete the reputations of people who are executives in the state. Even the President may suffer from the media and its influence on all spheres of human life.

Ethnicity, Racial Issues, and Politics

People Discussing Something

Probably you have researched various racial and ethical issues in different spheres of human life from small communities to international relationships. It is time to pay attention to the political life in the country. It is a pretty good idea to use statistics and graphs while presenting your paper. Sometimes you will have to operate with figures as your main task is comparing several political periods and even epochs in order to see things clearly. This topic is also quite amusing as you will be able to illustrate your personal attitude to the problem as well.

To sum up, there are some truly unusual and specific topics which you can use while working on your political science papers. Although this college subject seems to be very difficult for understanding, it is very amazing and helps you to enlarge your knowledge and even change the worldview. Be ready to face some challenges as they are necessary for the improvement of your skills. However, our prompts will greatly ease your task in any case. Hopefully, you have already found a suitable concept for yourself among those which we presented. In the next post, we will demonstrate even more issues, which are possible to use as the main subject of your essay.

Ideas for Political Science Papers: Topical Information

Politics Delivering Speeches

We have mentioned several times that the process of writing papers on such subjects as political science may be quite difficult and many young people experience these challenges without any support and examples, which may help young people to tackle these nasty issues. It is also important to be able to develop a chosen topic and present it in the most effective way in order to deliver the clearest message to your readers. Hence, you should try to be diligent and attentive even to the smallest details while working on your political science essay. Who knows, maybe, you will create the best paper in the group and reach the huge success in such a way. That is why we continue our previous theme here. Learn the ideas generated by our specialists and use them while working on your assignment. Their effectiveness is proven by professionals, so there is no need to suffer from doubts anymore.

Anarchism

Sure, this is a complicated and controversial topic but at the same time, it is also very amusing and unusual for students. Hence, they can develop the true interest in this issue and it will help them to work in a more diligent way. How can you research this system in the most effective way? There are no doubts that you should find out at least a few examples of states or so-called territories, which have applied anarchism. Is it possible to realize such a thing in the modern world? The majority of scientists come to an agreement in this case. They say that it is impossible to create a country without any rulers and systems of control. It will not last for a long time and all books and articles created on the theme of anarchism say that it is a perfect dream, which has nothing common with the reality. Research this system and present your personal opinion as well.

Fascism and National Socialism

Soldiers on War

It is true that these systems have many things in common and a lot of people do not see the difference between them. You can try to compare these points in your political paper. Take several countries as examples in order to make your task easier and reach a better result. Sure, you will compare Italy and Germany. Which features in the political life of these states were different? You should explain some diversity between Fascism and National Socialism even if these seem to be small details and you think that they matter nothing. Mention everything you can find as these things play a great role in a case of such comparisons. Try to avoid deluding sources of information. If you need to get some theoretical material, it will be better to use encyclopedias instead of unreliable magazines and pseudohistorical books.

Communism and Its Main Problems

There are no doubts that the communism system is famous all around the world and even nowadays, it is applied in several countries. Sure, for us, it seems to be ineffective and old-fashioned. However, only a few students are able to explain its main features, problems, and the history of this state organizational system. You have a brilliant opportunity to research this issue and even demonstrate your own thoughts on this subject. Do not be afraid of working on such a grand and unusual theme. Just use examples and you will easily deliver the main message to your readers.

To sum up, there are some truly cool and interesting ideas. You will be really amazed while researching these subjects. Sure, some difficulties may occur. However, there is no need to be afraid of them. It is much better to encourage yourself for completing your task in the most diligent and effective way than having doubts and fear before starting your work. Keep in mind that our team of specialists compile only the best ideas for you, so you will never feel confused while presenting your paper to the professor. Pay attention to the next post as well. Probably you will find more beneficial things to keep in mind and create an essay on the political science.

 

Topics for Political Papers: Useful Samples

Person Creating Essay

There are no doubts that the majority of the young people find writing a paper on political science an extremely tough and specific process, which only a few students can complete effectively and reach a high result. Hence, many young people suffer from doubts if they are able or not to write such an essay. As a rule, these students face troubles from the first steps in the process of writing a political text. They cannot pick a topic for their future work successfully. Sure, it is not as simple as many of us think, especially in the case of the political science. At the same time, this stage of writing indicated the result of everything you will do and the quality of your job depends on this point as well. How can you prevent failures? In the previous post, we have already presented a number of beneficial ideas but they are mostly general. Hence, we want to show more particular things here in order to enlarge your knowledge on this theme.

The System of Federalism

Even if this topic is closely related to the theoretical material and you will have to learn a lot of rules, schemes, and facts, this paper may become very amusing and specific. Just try not to concentrate all your attention on the information from encyclopedias. You can open up the theme of federalism while comparing it with other systems of the state organization. For example, unitary and federalism systems may be opposed in your paper and it will let you find a number of similarities, differences, and benefits, which each of them has. On the other hand, you should find out several examples of countries, which use such a mode in practice. This may be the Russian Federation. Hence, you should present some information about this state and explain its regime. Try to use various schemes and tables as they let your readers comprehend the material in the most effective way.

The Problem of Gender in Politics

It is also a pretty good idea to research the problem of gender, which exists in the political life of every country nowadays. There is no secret that the majority of the politicians are male even if the state has some strong democratic policies and provides the equal rights for all people. That is why you have a brilliant opportunity to work on this issue and explain the reasons for such a situation in the modern world. How have things changed since the previous century? Try to compare several ages and see the difference between them. Use some figures and statistics in order to find out the number of women in different political structures. At the same time, you can present several outstanding examples of female politicians, which have done a really good job while having high positions in the state.

The Issue of Terrorism and Its Solutions

Terrorist Organization

Without any exaggeration, the issue of terrorism is becoming more and more significant every day. Almost all news reports include some information about the recent attracts committed by terrorists. You can provide the truly useful and interesting survey. Use the fresh material on this theme published on specific news websites. Discover which terrorist organizations are the most dangerous nowadays and why the whole world fights them off. For instance, you can select the ISIS as the major example of such a community. Describe its terrorist activity and the attitude of various countries to their attacks. Which measures have been taken for the prevention of these events?

All in all, there are several useful ideas which can be extremely beneficial for students who get a task to create a paper on the political science at school or college. These concepts may be truly helpful and encourage you for doing your job in a better way. Do not forget that you will have to provide the original research in any case. Thus, you should find several reliable informational sources and work hard even if you get an amusing topic and it seems like this idea can bring you the real success. Keep in mind that things also depend on the quality of your job and your attitude and diligence. In the next post, we are going to demonstrate even more effective and useful ideas which you can use while working on your political paper.

 

Topics on Political Science: Ideas for Students

Essay Writing

Without any doubts, you have already got some assignments on the political science and they seem to be extremely difficult for the majority of the youth. Sure, a great number of various terms, dates, and names make students feel confused and they have no idea on how to start such essays. Moreover, many of them have doubts while choosing a topic. Some themes look too simple but others may be impossible to complete without someone’s support. That is why many young people are scared and start looking for help urgently. It is better to avoid millions of the online fraudsters and provide the success for yourself at college or school. Just pay attention to the ideas created by our specialists and you will understand that these things are truly beneficial and helpful. Here you can find some general topics.

Modern American Politics

Probably the politicians of the U.S. are the most discussed and well-known theme around the world. Everyone from the old people to the teenagers talks about them and their recently taken decisions. Hence, you can pick such a topic while working on your homework on political science. Why is it so beneficial? First of all, you will have to work not only with boring encyclopedias, archives, and ancient documents. There is a possibility to use modern materials such as news reports, various speeches, interviews and so on. In addition, modern politicians can be truly amazing personalities or do some weird things in public. These elements will definitely make your research more unusual and specific. It also provides you the success among readers who will be attracted by such details.

International Relationships in the U.S.

It is a pretty good idea to dedicate your essay paper to researching the international relationships of the U.S. with other countries. Maybe, you will represent the change of attitude to a certain state which has appeared through the years. On the other side, you can decide to explain the modern situation and its specialties comparing to the previous epoch. For example, it is a nice idea to show all materials via graphs and tables. Do not forget to use statistics as it will help you to demonstrate the influence of the international relationships on the country’s social life, economy and so on. That is why you will have to find out a lot of information. It is not as simple topic as it seems to be.

Famous Politician

The Main Issues of the Political Science

You can also try such a general approach to the subject if your teacher allows it. It is possible just to research the main issues of the political science. Find out some good textbooks and learn the theory well before starting your paper. Keep in mind that all your statements should be proved by some facts. You cannot just put down your personal opinion and make it the only right thing, which cannot be argued. Be careful while working with theory as there may be some pitfalls to notice and avoid.

Summing up, these are some general topics which you can use if they are suitable to the instructions given by your teacher. They are related to the political life of the America and the main policies which this country provides. However, this is not the end of our work and you can get even more amusing topics as examples for creating your own paper. In the next post, we will enlarge the number of these ideas and give you more opportunities for completing your home assignments.

Ideas for Writing Poetry: Topics for Young Authors

Poetry Book

There are no doubts that writing poem seems to be a complicated process, which young people sometimes cannot complete in the most effective way. Hence, they commit mistakes and experience lots of failures while working on their papers and creating some brilliant poems. Do not forget that these challenges help to improve your skills and make you more confident as an author. It is better to face such complications at the beginning of your career than deal with them later while being a well-known poet who fails at simple things at the same time. Try not to make such a mistake and reduce the fear while working on your poems as it will bring you more benefits later.

The Terrifying Winter

From the ancient times, people have had a kind of fear of winter, so they have been preparing for this terrifying and sometimes dangerous time. There are no doubts that students are interested in different mysterious themes and you can try to create such an unusual and atmospheric literary piece. It is important to find out the most effective metaphors and epithets, which will let you present the winter in the necessary light and make it look terrifying and mystical. It is a pretty good idea to personalize it, so you will be able to let it act as an evil queen or any other fantastic personage, which often represents this period of a year.

Fantasy World

The Fantasy City

It is true that many poets prefer to create fantastic and unusual cities. You can use this idea as well. Just let your imagination work and deplete all limits. There may be flying houses, colorful trees, and creatures from fairy tales. Nothing is impossible in your own world. Try to avoid copying someone else’s ideas as it may be a fatal mistake. The audience will never be amazed while reading the similar things again and again. Moreover, it is essential to reduce the typical shyness, which all young poets have. They are afraid of presenting their thoughts and ideas on the paper.

All in all, these ideas are truly beneficial for beginners who often face creative blocks and may have no idea while working on their papers. Sometimes a person decides to give up writing prose and starts writing poems. Hence, some difficulties may occur just because of the lack of experience in this sphere. That is why you should try to find more good examples of topics while facing such a situation. Remember that these short but useful ideas can protect you from great failures and make you ready for various challenges which poets usually have to deal with.

 

Writing About Human Sciences: We Needs to Study Ourselves

Person Who Writes

Probably, no academic sphere has so much self-criticism and pessimism as social science has. The most eminent scientists wonder: “What am I doing here? What is the sense of my existence?”

Social science is very young, much younger than physics or biology. Only in the mid-19th century, it began to be perceived as a science, and before this, it was just a public opinion.

Human sciences make a complex of disciplines, whose subject is to study society in all aspects of its life, and a person as a member of its. These sciences cover such theoretical forms of knowledge as philosophy, sociology, cultural studies, history, philology, psychology, law, economics, ethnography (ethnology), political science, education and arts.

Methods

Philosophy was the only discipline that studied human being for many centuries. As for the knowledge, in contrast to other natural phenomena, no chemicals or microscopes can be applied; they should be replaced by the force of abstraction. Using philosophical abstraction allows us to consider society as an entity of a special kind, revealing its intrinsic characteristics.

In philosophy, the basic concepts that characterize human history as such entity are “society”, “socio-historic” categories, “personality”. These ideas reflect the most important aspects of human life, such as labor, knowledge, and culture.

Each of the above-mentioned disciplines examines social life from various angles and with certain theoretical and ideological positions, by using their own specific research methods. For example, in political science, the main research tool is the category of “power”, which appears as an organized system of authority relations.

In sociology, the society can be considered as a dynamic system of relations between social groups of different degrees of generality. Categories “social group”, “social relations”, and “socialization” have become the method of analyzing social phenomena.

In cultural studies, culture and its forms are considered as a valuable aspect of the society. Categories of “truth”, “beauty”, “good”, “benefit” are ways of studying distinct cultural phenomena.

Economics is using categories such as “money”, “good”, “market”, “demand”, “offer”, and so on. The history of the company is exploring the past by relying on a variety of extant sources from this past in order to establish the sequence of events, their causes, and the connections between them.

Separation

Company of Students

The separation of human and nature sciences was a reaction to the positivistic and naturalistic understanding of human existence.

Naturalism looks at the society from the standpoint of vulgar materialism, it does not see fundamental differences between cause and its effect on nature and on society.

The naturalism and positivism sought to abandon the speculative, scholastic reasoning, typical of the metaphysical research community, striving to create “positive” evidence.

Now it is possible to speak not only about the opposition of the natural scientific methods to the humanities, but also about their convergence. Mathematical methods are actively used in economics (particularly in econometrics), history (quantitative history), philology (structural linguistics), and political science (political analysis). We also know scientific disciplines that combine techniques of human and natural sciences, such as economic geography.

Establishment

Antiquity

In antiquity, most human sciences consisted were based on philosophy as on the way of integrating knowledge about a human and society. In ancient and medieval philosophy, the concept of society was practically equated with the idea of the state. Historically, the earliest form of social theory can be found in the works of Plato and Aristotle.

Middle Ages

In the Middle Ages, the most prominent philosophers who made a significant contribution to human sciences were Augustine, St. John Damascene, and Thomas Aquinas.

Renaissance and Modern Times

The figures of the Renaissance (the 15th -16th centuries) and Modern Times (starting from the 17th century) are T. Moore and his Utopia, and Machiavelli with his Sovereign.

In modern times, science finally separated from philosophy. University departments and faculties of Social Sciences have begun publishing special magazines dedicated to studying social phenomena and processes, to establish an association of scholars engaged in research in social sciences.

Main Directions of the Modern Thought

In social science of the 20th century two approaches were established: the technocratic approach and scientifically humanistic approach.

The most developed social theory is the concept of post-industrial society, the basic principles of which were set in the works of Daniel Bell (1965). The idea of post-industrial society is quite popular in modern social sciences, and the term itself brings together a number of studies in which the authors seek to identify a leading trend in the development of contemporary society, by considering the manufacturing process in various aspects, including institutional ones.

Three phases of development can be marked in the history of the mankind:

  1. preindustrial (agrarian) form;
  2. industrial (technological) form;
  3. post-industrial (social) form.

Information becomes the main resource of production (in pre-industrial society it was a raw material, in industrial society it is the energy). Based on this distinction, specific features of each society can be identified: pre-industrial society is built on the interaction with nature, industrial society is built on the interaction with the nature transformed by its members, post-industrial society is built on the interaction between people.

Agricultural, industrial, and post-industrial societies are not the stages of social development. These are co-existing forms of organization of manufacturing and its main trends.

The industrial phase began in Europe in the 19th century. Post-industrial society does not remove other forms and adds a new dimension associated with the use of information in social life. Information acquires the greatest value. Post-industrial society is associated with the 1970s. Information technologies radically affected manufacturing, and therefore the way of life. In the information society, there is a transition from the manufacturing of goods to the production of services; there is also a new class of technicians, consultants, and experts.

The main characteristics of the industrial technology, based on the old type of machinery and division of labor, are centralization and uniformity of gigantism (mass scale), accompanied by oppression, misery, poverty, and environmental disasters. However, overcoming evils of industrialism can be possible in the future.

Conclusion

Nowadays the crucial task of a young scientist is to get the power of social sciences back, to bring them back into the public discourse, to draw the attention of the media, and as a result, to encourage the society to self-reflect.

We also recommend you an essay about why we need science.

How to Write About Science Nowadays

Crowded Laboratory

Nowadays, there is no single definition of science. If you look this word up in different sources, you can find more than 150 definitions for it. One of these definitions states that science is a form of spiritual activity of people, aimed at analyzing information about nature and society, as well as the knowledge of truth and purpose of the research based on the aggregation of the objective laws and real facts.

Also, there is another widespread definition: science is a creative activity to obtain new information; the result of such activity is the knowledge, contained in the integrated system on the basis of certain principles and the process of their production.

Nowadays

The origins of modern science can be found in Europe of the 15th-17th centuries. As a special form of knowledge of the world and its transformation, it has formed an understanding of what the world of nature is like. It is evident that the scientific view on the world could be established only in the community, which is already prepared to accept this view. Consequently, new forms of thinking essentially coincide with the scientific ideas compared with the medieval conception of the world in the period when the feudal system of production was being destructed.

The Role in the Society: Key Information

The 20th century was the century of great scientific progress. After all, imagine that only a hundred years ago, the mankind discovered telephone and cinema. But telephones motionlessly stood on tables and were connected to a total urban network by a cable. Cut the cord – and the neighboring towns would not be able to hear one another. Nowadays intercontinental conversation via a mobile phone is possible without any cords and wires.

So, scientific discoveries intervene in the life of people, improve it, and try to make it more comfortable. Issues can be resolved at a distance, and these distances can be overcome in a few hours, when a medieval courier would have had to ride his horse for months.

Gradually the discoveries of science are reaching all members of the human society and unite them.

Many Robots

Alexander Herzen said, “Science is the power that reveals the relations between things, their laws, and interactions”. Nevertheless, how strong is contemporary science? What are its features?

Today we can say that science plays an important role in many industries and areas of our life. The level of development of science is one of the main indicators of the development of society and its country. Everything around us has been created by science.

The 20th century was the century of the scientific revolution. It gradually improved the high-tech products. The technology changed the modes of production. By 1950s, factory mode of production became dominant. In the second half of the century, the automation became widespread. And by 2000s, high-tech was developed, and it continued the transition to information economy. All this happened due to the inevitable development of science and technology.

Different Kinds

Modern science has amazing capabilities. Even in 1904, Nikola Tesla claimed that once a person would be able to send their thoughts to the farthest distance. A century later it became possible. The society has reached such a high level in the world of information, that now any person can find almost any information in the WWW. In every home and office, there is already a computer and the internet. They have become so commonplace that everyone forgets about the dangers associated with their use.

For example, the computer is the source of several types of radiation fields. CRT monitors, desktops, and laptops produce ionizing radiation. Just like any other appliance, the computer creates electromagnetic radiation. It also forms an entire complex of electromagnetic fields. The most recent research on the effects of electromagnetic radiation says about health threats.

At the current stage science is trying to resolve these problems by creating a new industry within the scientific community. It explores the challenges: for example, the science of ergonomics studies interactions between the person and the computer and other machines. Ergonomics deals with the study of complex human work and therefore combines many scientific disciplines. Physiology, occupational health, psychology and other sciences are seeking for the ways of reducing the burden on the human organism put by the computer.

Thanks to the progress in medicine, biology, genetics, embryology, the mankind has found an “antidote” against many ailments. Our ancestors could not imagine that in the 21st century will grow new human organs in order to replace the damaged ones.

Chemistry and physics cannot help evolving. They are developing in two directions as fundamental sciences (that create and study theoretical foundations of physical and chemical knowledge) and as practical sciences (that solve practical problems that emerge in various spheres of life). They try to protect the public from natural disasters, to find alternative sources of energy and mineral resources which mankind needs every day.

Functions

Researchers identify four social functions of science:

  • It lies in the understanding of the world, its laws and phenomena.
  • It involves not only teaching but also social motivation, the development of values.
  • Science is a public good and a key element of human culture.
  • Its function is to produce material and social benefits, as well as to apply theory in practice.

So, we have analyzed such an important topic. Expanding the topic, we have shown the relevance of science in ancient times, and its relevance today. Of course, science will be relevant in the future.

Conclusion

They say that if Johann Sebastian Bach had not been born, the world would have never heard music. However, if Albert Einstein had not been born, the theory of relativity, sooner or later, would be discovered by another scientist.

Knowledge is the force. This famous aphorism of Francis Bacon is still relevant today. Of course, science is one of the most important forms of society’s culture and its development, as well as the most important factor of renovation of all spheres of human activity. Modern science shapes the human world.

Nevertheless, is it always safe? We believe that this issue will remain unresolved. It is difficult to overestimate the importance of the science for a little man – a member of society. So, people rely on scientists and wait for the scientific growth and progress, but not for the invention of bombs and guns. Science turns into an antagonist of our story when it is aimed at implementing violence and intimidation.

We also recommend you reading an article about the role of the scientist, created in a form of an essay.

Essay for Students: The Role of the Scientist – Fortuity or Regularity

Scientist White Coat

The logical chain is simple: one or several similar ideas in two minds produce one accident. The randomness contributes to the discovery. Thanks to this, scientists can move along the path of invention.

As Albert Einstein said, most of the great discoveries were made by mistake.

This topic is exhaustive and interesting enough. For example, Poincare almost discovered Einstein’s theory of relativity. In history, there are many cases when the circumstances of two similar discoveries in the field of physics, chemistry, geometry and other sciences were the same. In different parts of the world, under different conditions – equipment, climate, emotional tension – two scientists made the same discovery. This fact is a significant confirmation of Hegel‘s idea of the absolute mind – the spirit of the world.

Introduction

Humanity exists, but simple existence is not enough for us – people want to brighten their lives, and therefore think and dream of various devices that will help to reach the goal. At the same time, they do not have any idea about the future of the invention.

For example, people dreamt of flying – so we have the myth of Icarus. The young man made wings, took off into the sky, burned the wings and fell down. The myth appeared in the ancient Greece. The Greeks did not know the simple scientific fact that at a certain distance from the ground, a living organism is exposed to cooling. However, they dreamt to see processes taking place on the earth from a bird’s-eye view.

A lot of time had passed before such an event happened. For the first time, a full mission was carried out only in 1884 by the French military dirigible. So, human consciousness seems to send signals concerning what people want and need, and after some time the mind of the world illuminates the mind of one or even two scientists, who make their “contribution” to the development of a progressive thought. The role of the scientist in this process is random, but the discovery is made anyway.

The Main Part

Chemical Experiment

Now let us consider the fortuity and regularity in more detail. Most people believe in fate, and believe that nothing in our lives can be changed – everything is preordained. Other people think that a person is a creator of his or her own destiny and everything depends on his or her choice.

The first group of people believes that no matter how much an individual drink or smoke, and what a dissolute life they live, they will live long. If everything goes this way, it is “destiny”, and if not – they will die regardless of external factors, and the cause of their death will be random. Moreover, if there is no reason, the conditions and the type of death could be planned in advance, as well as the time and place.

One scientist has demonstrated the intersection of fortuity and regularity in the following example.

Example

Imagine a large open space. There is a group of people. Each person is situated a meter away from the other one. At a high speed a meteor hits the ground and kills one person. This implies the following conclusion: the fact that the meteor kills this person is a fortuity, but the fact that it must have killed someone is the regularity.

 

It is the same with discoveries. They must be made and this is the regularity, while the role of the scientist is random. However, fulfilling these dreams and hopes is carried out not only by the movement of a thought in a certain direction but mostly due to the downward insights.

Another Hypothesis

There is another hypothesis which does not concern just thoughts. Scientists are born with an innate idea, and after a certain period of time, they discover it in themselves. Nevertheless, in such a situation, their personal choice is limited. They are not free even to choose in what sphere of science they will work. Of course, he/she can follow the conclusion that the person should do things that he/she likes. Fate will encourage them to work on a vocation. However, what if a person is lazy and does not want to do anything? So, there is still one aspect.

Anyway, proceeding from this conviction, the scientist is “insured” from death until their mission is completed.

Conclusion

We may think that everything is destined, but in some cases we do have a choice. Where? How? It is difficult to know the reason – you can only feel it. Destiny cannot be changed, but you can select it, like the road. So, we make a choice not once but every day.

We hope that you like this essay. It could be interesting for you to read about the social role of the scientist, too.