The Consequences of Obesity

Health of Human

First of all, during writing your essay you should know the verity. The truth is that almost everyone has an overweight. Of course, it causes displeasure. Excess weight can even cause depression and low self-esteem. And here not only human prejudices are important, the main role plays actually a real discomfort: the difficulty in finding beautiful and comfortable clothes, dissatisfaction with appearance, and health problems appeared within this condition.

Do not forget to mention in your essay when the weighing machine begins to go off-scale and the ratio of weight and height is significantly disturbed. In its turn, it is fraught with negative consequences in terms of health.

The Threats of Fattiness

Fattiness is a serious threat to health. Each person should know that adiposity is linked to a full “bunch” of very terrible disease states.

You should remember that a high percentage of body fat means:

  • cardiovascular diseases;
  • that it may be a consequence of diabetes;
  • abdominal adiposity (fat accumulation in the abdomen), which is directly connected with the development of ischemic heart disease;
  • the risk of arterial hypertension and other diseases.

Hypertension: Your Blood Pressure Rate Goes Up

Blood Pressure

The blood pressure of obese people is often so high that it creates a real threat to vessels rupture with all the ensuing consequences for health… Treatment of such hypertension, as a rule, is not very successful. The fact is that high pressure is necessary for human’s body with adiposity, because the heart needs to pump blood under higher pressure to this body.

The consequences of hypertension take more lives than AIDS, cancer and tuberculosis which are taken together.

Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is the most common chronic disease of the arteries, with the appearance of single and multiple of lipid niduses, mainly cholesterol sediments that are the plaques in an inner membrane of the arteries. In addition, the acute blockage (occlusion) of the arterial lumen is possible by either thrombus, or (less often) the contents of the broken plaque, or both of them simultaneously, which leads to the formation of niduses of necrosis (heart attack) or gangrene in the organ which is fed by this artery.

There are such risk factors as:

  • smoking,
  • overweight,
  • high level of cholesterol in the blood,
  • high blood pressure,
  • stress,
  • slow-moving lifestyle.

Atherosclerosis is a major factor of lethal outcomes for the majority of our contemporaries. Atherosclerosis is developed much earlier and more frequently in obese people, because of the specificity of their metabolism.

Decrease of Immunity (Metabolic Immunosuppression)

Nowadays, almost everyone knows that the role of immunity is great. In connection with the spread of AIDS, the immunity may be reduced under the influence of various factors. One of such factors is ketone bodies, which are formed in particular during the splitting of fat. A significant part of the energy is produced by the splitting of fat. It is called a «fat type» of energy of obese people. It produces a lot of ketones, and they depress the immune system. Unfortunately, tumors are one of the diseases that are developed on the background of the oppressed immunity. Adiposity is a risk factor for tumor diseases.

The First Result Is Cardiovascular Diseases

First of all, it is very destructive for the heart, because it is forced to provide blood to lots of areas of the body. The raise of the loads on the cardiovascular system leads to the cardiac enlargement with thickening it muscle walls and strengthening of the beats. The result is high blood pressure, development of hypertension. The person is cured by pills, unsuccessfully trying to reduce the pressure, but the correct treatment is to lose weight. The “extra” lipids are saved on the walls of blood vessels and form plaques that overlap lumen of blood vessels and disturb blood circulation.

If the weight exceeds the norm by more than 10%, the risk of stroke, coronary heart diseases and other ailments raises. Also, the pressure and cholesterol level are increased, glucose is accumulated as the cells are unable to split it. Load on the heart is raised even during rest state if you have overweight.

Your Liver Is Under Attack

Human Liver

The liver is the second organ, which falls under attack of fattiness. Products, which we eat, are made up of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. And carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the body. All carbohydrate food turns into glucose in a small human intestine, which enters into the blood, and then (as a reserve) to the liver where it is converted into glycogen. It is a substance that is very similar to a kissel. Normally, the liver can contain 90 g of glycogen, and the rest is converted to fat. In other words, it is sent to adipose stocks of the body. If carbohydrate intake is greater than 90 g, or there is a systematic overeating, the liver will begin to be overfilled with fats. And gradually, its cells are transformed into a source of fat reserves.

Increasing Risk of Diseases

Adiposity has influence not only on the heart, but also on the bowel. Abundant nutrition leads to over-work of the digestive system. And over time, it will not be able to cope with such load. The frequent consequences of adiposity such as gastritis with low acidity, biliary dyskinesia, cholecystitis, chronic pancreatitis, colitis are appearing. The permanent result of fattiness is hypothyroidism. It means a lack of T4 thyroxine hormone of thyroid gland in blood. As a result of hypothyroidism, metabolism of the patient slows down, it becomes sluggish and passive. This disease is so often accompanied by adiposity, that endocrinologists don’t always prescribe research on hormones of obese people with excess weight.

Respiratory Issues

Overweight and fattiness in particular impede the work of the respiratory system. There is a great probability of apnea acquisition (stop of breathing during sleep). Also, it causes the development of snore, tiredness, pain in the heart area.

Diabetes

Cakes, candies, pies

It is ten times more likely to find diabetes in overweight people, comparing to people with normal weight.

A clear link was noticed between the fattiness and diabetes of II type (non-insulin dependency). The opportunity of getting this disease increases with excess weight in forty times.

Hormonal Issues

There are various hormonal disorders that appear due to excess weight. Pre-diabetes state arises when the body requires more and more insulin to regulate glucose rates. The level of hormone growth is reduced. It causes development of dishormonal disturbances that can lead to the menstrual cycle disturbances or impotence. Testosterone rate is often reduced in men, and in women, in contrast, the level of testosterone is increased, and progesterone level is lowered.

Other Consequences

The extra kilos are an additional burden for the joints and spine, which have to constantly carry a huge load on themselves. If you are able to cope with excess weight in time, you will save yourself from premature deterioration of the joints and painful hurt in old age. Almost all diseases, including influenza, pneumonia, acute respiratory diseases occur to obese people much harder. They require long-term treatment and more often cause complications. It is also known that the body of obese people is much worse internalized by drugs that are introduced via injections. In such cases, the injections do not get into the muscle, as it should be, but in the fatty tissue.

Degrees of Obesity

Fatty Foods

We can say that adiposity is the big problem of modern civilized society, as the relentless statistics informs that today almost every citizen of developed countries has this problem. And if earlier adiposity was got in most cases “by inheritance,” today it affects people regardless of genetic factors.

However, it should be understood, that the movement from the first degree of fattiness to each subsequent entails more and more health problems, with which it will be much more difficult to cope. We hope that an important motivation for these indecisive people will become opportunity to clarify the current stage of adiposity and understand the problems at the threshold where they are.

How to Measure the Degree of Adiposity

Measure Weight

The easiest way to determine whether your body weight is normal, is to use the index of Broca: we should subtract 100 cm from height (in centimeters). However, there is one restriction: we can apply this calculation to people from 155 to 170 cm. In addition, the given number helps to determine normal weight, but what if a person’s weight exceeds normal limits?

To determine the degree of adiposity, it is better to calculate body mass index by the formula proposed by Belgian scientist Adolphe Quetelet. L equals to m divided to squared h.

In this formula, l – is BMI, m – is body mass in kilograms, and h – is height in meters.

For example: human growth is 160 m., human weight is 60 kg.

BMI = 60: (1,6 х 1,6) = 23,4

Now let’s turn to the table of this index interpretation:

  • 16 and less —expressed deficiency of body weight;
  • 16-18,5 — insufficient body weight;
  • 18,5 — 25 — normal;
  • 25 — 30 — excess body weight or pre-obese;
  • 30 — 35 — adiposity of the first degree;
  • 35 — 40 — adiposity of the second degree;
  • 40 and more — adiposity of the third degree.

Pre-Obese and Adiposity Of The First Degree

Now after we have decided how to measure degrees of adiposity, let’s read about them to understand what is behind the given number.

While there are no special health complaints, the person can be disturbed by his/her appearance and some physical discomfort. However, these extra kilos have already begun to affect the general health; an increase in the load on the spine, bones, joints has appeared. Because of this, joint pain, abuse in their work may appear, as well as irregularities in the musculoskeletal system.

It is important to understand that these first degrees of adiposity are usually progressive processes. If measures to stabilize weight and eliminate extra kilograms are not taken in time, the weight will come, whether slower or faster.

Adiposity of The Second Degree

The second degree of fattiness is diagnosed, when a person’s weight is above normal in 50-99%. The body responds to overweight by chronically malaise and constant tiredness, weakness, frequent irritability. Patients complain about the constant feeling of hunger and thirst, frequent or constant feeling of nausea, shortness of breath, persistent pain in all joints. Also, diseases of internal organs are starting to disturb.

Adiposity of The Third Degree

When a person’s weight is twice of the rate, we talk about the third degree of fattiness. At this degree the symptoms that were observed in the second stage are further deepened. The patients are characterized by swelling of the face and body; in addition, complaints on persistent pain of internal organs are added. In most cases they are diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and cardio vascular system. At this stage, adiposity begins to transform all systems and organs of the body.

Start Your Treatment

Doctor

If a person is diagnosed with some degree of fattiness, then we can say only one thing: you should pull yourself together and start treatment. Today, there are few proven treatments of adiposity and you need to make an optimal choice together with your doctor.

Firstly, let’s resort to unmedical method. It is a diet and increasing of physical activity. Then medical techniques are followed. The preparations that suppress appetite can be prescribed to the patient, as well as drugs which are aimed to the normalization of hormonal levels. Sometimes you need to resort to surgery. Usually, such operations are made as abdominoplasty (elimination of the abdomen) and liposuction (removal of hypodermic fat from under the skin).

Degrees of Childhood Fattiness

Child With Cake

In order to determine the degree of childhood adiposity, you should compare excess weight to the length of the body. It is made by pediatrician and endocrinologist, comparing the data with special age tables.

  • I degree – 15-24 %;
  • II degree – 25-49 %;
  • III degree – 50-99 %;
  • IV degree – 100 % and more.

Prophylaxis of Childhood Obesity

Prophylaxis of the fattiness of a baby should begin not from the moment when he/she is born, but when he/she is in the womb. Predispositions to diseases appear together with the majority of taste preferences at this time.

Do not teach a child to ask for a bottle of milk at the first cry, in such a case we accustom him/her to seize up troubles and stress. There is no need to manipulate children, forcing them to eat everything to the end, motivating them by gift. This is how we teach the future generation. “You should eat everything even if you do not want, because leaving the food is bad.”

Treatment of Childhood Adiposity

The main treatment is a strict diet to reduce caloric intake from fat and carbohydrates (sweets, sugar, some fruit, and white bread). It is also advisable to replace cereals to vegetables. It will significantly decrease calorie content.

The main thing that parents should avoid is testing on child different miracle diets that promise instant results due to the complete exclusion of some food components (e.g. protein diet). The fact is that a growing body constantly undergoes a series of changes. If adults can come through it easily, it will be very harmful for the child’s body.

The second thing, which often parents do is the denial of child’s illness. Sometimes it causes irreparable damage. That’s why an endocrinologist consultation, which excludes all possible diseases and makes treatment plan and diet menu, should be appointed to kids. It is not necessary to self-medicate, because only a doctor can determine the reduction of caloric level of the future menu and that will not adversely affect health and bring visible results. Also, therapeutic exercises with instructor can be included in the treatment plan. Your instructor will determine the necessary level of load and take into account the individual characteristics of the organism.

The Notion of Obesity

Weighting-machine

When writing your essay, it’s better to mention that fattiness is a disease in which the subcutaneous and other tissues are accumulated by excess fat. Overweight is, unfortunately, not just an aesthetic problem that can seriously poison the life of a man. The extra weight is often reflected in the general health and can cause not only serious diseases for life, but even lead to death. Thus, the frequent consequences of obesity are serious diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, diseases of heart, blood vessels, kidneys, and liver, gastrointestinal tract.
Fattiness is a disease that must be healed competently and without fail. Today fattiness is researched by nutritionists and endocrinologists. Why is it done by them? The answer is in major causes of disease, including a metabolic disorder, incorrect and often over-eating. Unfortunately, many people suspect themselves to have this disease, but for various reasons, they delay a visit to a specialist.

The Main Types of Obesity

There are different types of adiposity, each one depending on the hormonal background.

The following subtypes of alimentary fattiness (most common form), which is associated with improper diet and less active lifestyle, are:

  • Adiposity of the female type (pear) or low fattiness is characterized by putting off the main mass of fat on the buttocks thighs and in the lower part of the abdomen. Such fattiness is less dangerous for women, and does not provide serious hormonal disorders. Fatty tissues are accumulated in the bulk of body under the skin. If their amount is not critical, it does not make significant obstacle for normal functioning of internals. But if you are diagnosed to have “adiposity,” health problems won’t be avoided without proper treatment. Except for the elaboration of proper diet, various anti-cellulite and massage treatments are recommended in such case of fattiness.
  • Adiposity of the male type (apple) or upper obesity is the most dangerous type of fattiness, where fat tissue is accumulated in the abdomen and on the internals. This case of adiposity is a serious threat even with a relatively small amount of excess weight, because fat on the internal organs complicates their normal work. The abdominal obesity is very simple to be diagnosed. If you have the ratio of waist size to thighs volume of more than 1 for men and 0.8 for women, it means that you have a cause for worriment. Especially if you have a large number of extra kilos.
  • Mixed type of adiposity means that fat tissue is disposed evenly throughout the body. It often appears among children and also needs correction.

The Main Criteria of Adiposity

Body mass index (BMI) is the most traditional criterion which defines the fattiness. Specialists consider a human to have overweight, if the BMI is in the range between 25 and 29.9 points. If a human has fattiness – his BMI is over 30 points.

“Critical Adiposity” means that a person has 50%-100% of normal weight and his/her BMI is over 40 points, or when overweight seriously affects health.

What Fattiness Is Caused by?

Causes of Obesity

Fattiness occurs when a person consumes more calories than spends. Many people have this situation as the result of overeating and sedentary lifestyle. But there are other factors that also play a role in the formation of fattiness. They are:

  • When you get older, your body’s ability to absorb food slows down and you do not need as many calories to maintain a healthy weight. That’s why people say, that, with age, they eat the same amount of food and are engaged in the same activities, but their weight increases.
  • Women are generally more often overweight than men. This is due to the fact that men have a higher metabolic rate (i.e. during the state of calmness they spend more energy) than women because men need more calories to maintain body weight. Also, when women reach menopause, metabolic rate decreases. That is why many women gain weight after menopause.
  • Adiposity (exactly like thinness) can be inherited. If your biological mother is slim, in 75% of cases you have the chance to inherit this feature and vice versa, if your mother suffers from fattiness, you are to have problems with excess weight. However, many people can be genetically predisposed to adiposity, but they don`t gain excess weight.
  • The environmental factor. Although genes are an important factor in many cases of fattiness, the environment also plays a significant role. Environmental factor also includes a person’s way of life, eating behavior and general physical activity.

Extra Reasons of Fattiness

Depression

  • Physical activity. Active people need more calories than passive ones. In addition, physical activity tends to decrease appetite in obese people while increasing the body’s ability to metabolism of fats as an energy source. Most of the cases of fattiness are associated with lower levels of daily physical activity.
  • The psychological factor. Psychological factor also influences on the increase in weight. Many people eat because of negative emotions such as boredom, sadness or anger. People who have difficulties with management of weight may face more serious emotional dependence on food and stop controlling how much they eat.
  • Some diseases can lead to fattiness. They include hormonal problems such as hypothyroidism (slow metabolism related to improper functioning of the thyroid gland), depression, and some rare brain diseases that provoke overeating.
  • Some preparations, such as steroids and antidepressants, can cause excessive gain of weight.

Emotional Factor of the Fattiness

Complexes and emotional suffering are the most painful aspects of adiposity. A false stereotype was formed in our minds about people who are obese, they are often considered to be voracious, lazy and weak-willed individuals. That’s why obese people often face prejudices and discrimination at work, at school, during search of work, and when they are trying to build social ties. Feelings of rejection, shame, or depression are common problems for people who are overweight.

Bullying Surmounting: Ideas for a Paper

No to Bullying

Note in your paper that the psycho-pedagogical correctional work should ultimately be aimed not at getting rid of aggressiveness and bullying, but on the elimination of the leading causes and on the extension of active instruments that are used in the child’s demeanor. The implementation of a complex correctional program of skill development and constructive management of student`s aggressiveness is one of the main tasks of social and pedagogical work to overcome school bullying.

Program Principles

Principles

This program should be based on the following psycho-pedagogical principles (indicate them in the paper):

  • systematization of corrective, preventive and developing tasks;
  • unity of correction and diagnostics;
  • priority of the correction of the causal type;
  • consideration of the age and the psychological and individual characteristics of the client;
  • the complexity of the methods of psychological influence;
  • active involvement of the immediate social environment and participation in a correctional program.

Directions

Human Aggressiveness

The following directions, in which work on the correction of aggression should be carried out, are mentioned in psychological and educational literature and practice. They are:

  • training invasive kids of the ways to express anger in a socially acceptable manner;
  • teaching kids of the self-control techniques and skills of self-management, improvement of communication skills in potential conflict situations;
  • formation of personality traits of adolescents as empathy and trust to people (an effective way to implement this direction is the method of induction of incompatible responses, which includes humor and laugh, as well as focusing on the state of other people).

Techniques

The socio-pedagogical activity with invasive kids will be more effective, if it is implemented on the basis of a methodology of easing kid’s aggressiveness, involving the use of the following forms of work (your paper should also contain them):

  • refocusing of activity and attention of the kids in a constructive direction;
  • preventive conversations aimed at making the kids understand the need for peaceful resolution of the conflict, backed by reference to the law and the rights of other people;
  • role-playing games that allow playing real-life situations and teaching kids socially acceptable demeanor in different circumstances;
  • assignments that help to teach the kids the responsive and attentive relation to each other and people around (writing of congratulations, participation in charity events, etc.);
  • exercises of performing the actions due to the examples, following the rules, pictorial and physical activity;
  • psychological training (to take a deep breath, count to 10, imagine the consequences of action, etc.);
  • tempering of the body (washing with cold water, etc.);
  • training of the will (promises not to conflict and not to offend others, following the fulfillment of this promises every day, etc.);
  • self-reports (summarizing the previous day, analysis of demeanor and actions, etc.)

Work with Parents

Mark in the paper that the work with parents, the discussion with them the reasons of bullying is one of the ways to overcome school bullying. The restraint in the assessment is important when talking with parents of the guilty kids. After all, most of the guilty kids in the bullying situations are children from poor families. The danger with the parents of victims is not to take a position of “full-dress uniform” defense, i.e. to protect the school’s reputation and not a victim. If the conversation is about what can and should be done to change the situation, we can solve this problem together.

Doll Therapy

In practice, social workers and psychologists can use art therapy methods to reduce the level of aggressiveness. You can point in the paper that one of these methods is doll therapy. This method is particularly effective in working with younger kids. Procedure technique of doll therapy is that a story is played for a child with his valuable character. It is related to the situation that causes trauma to him.

Tell about the division of such therapy in the paper. Doll therapy can be subdivided into expressive (active) and impressive (passive), depending on what position is taken by a child while exercising. In the first case, the child creates himself, he is an actor and director of the play, in the second case he “consumes” art, i.e., he is a spectator. Doll therapy can be performed both individually and in groups. An individual form of work is applied only by a psychologist in his practice. The group form may be carried out independently by the social worker. Only if it is necessary, he can resort to the help of a psychologist. Pay attention in the paper that, unfortunately, this method is not well developed in practice of the social teacher.

Bullying Partakers: Writing Prompts

 Bullying Stops Here

Let us find out in our writing the typological features of partakers of bullying. There are following features of the partakers.

Persecutor

Define in writing that “persecutors” with low sociometric status have the highest satisfaction rate in the communication, they are clearly aware of the social circle in which they are accepted. They are significantly more authoritarian than other partakers of the bullying. This feature helps them to subordinate “helpers,” it is an internal justification during “persecution” of victims and creates a sense of subjective rightness. “Persecutors,” despite their role, consider themselves too good; they want to be even less good than they are. Also, the “persecutors” do not seek to be patient. In general, the “persecutors” have fairly high level of self-esteem and a lot of pretensions.

Victim

Bullying Victim

Point out in writing that the “victims” have the lowest sociometric status and satisfaction rate in the communication. It shows their low position in the class. “Victims” are the most dependent, “weak” in comparison with other partakers of bullying. Self-concept of the “victims” is the lowest in comparison with other groups, and the level of pretensions is quite high, so the “victim” is very unhappy, they do not accept themselves and perhaps want to change. Levels of anxiety, difficulties in communication and conflicts are the highest among the “victims.”

Helper

They have a fairly low sociometric status. Specify in writing that they do not achieve respect in the classroom. “Helpers” are very dependent. It makes them subordination subject to the “persecutors,” but at the same time, they are sufficiently authoritarian, which creates an internal discomfort in them. “Helpers” have the highest rate of active direct bullying, as they are often name-calling, hitting, and “persecutors” just choose a goal and think over a plan. “Helpers” are experiencing an acute shortage of communication with their fathers. Perhaps they find out the father qualities in the “persecutors,” and therefore seek to help them even in persecution. “Helpers” have average indicators of self-concept to the level of pretensions.

Defender

Defender Bullying

Inform us due to your writing that “defenders” have the highest sociometric status and relatively high satisfaction rate in communication, i.e., they are generally satisfied with the occupied position, which is also quite high. They more rarely than others manifest bullying towards classmates and are bullied. It confirms the correctness of dividing into groups. The “defenders” have a fairly high self-concept, especially in terms of reliability and understanding. Ideally, they want to be very good, kindness to them is a constant value. These features allow them to understand the “victims,” sympathize and help them.

Neutral Participants

Pay attention in writing that “neutral partakers” have enough high sociometric status and awareness rate of positive relations. They are the least dependent, which allows them not to interfere in the conflicts. They just look from the side, but it is not always a good thing. “Neutral partakers” are viewers, for whom performance is played. In many respects, their inaction provokes bullying. Furthermore, “persecutors” are often only executors of the will of “neutral partakers.” They have the highest level of pretensions by “tolerance” quality. This once again confirms the correctness of dividing into groups. Only tolerance allows them to stay away from the conflict.

Domestic Reasons: Essay Ideas on Bullying

Don’t Bully

Consider in your essay the most common “family” causes of bullying. They are noted by authors such as L. Berkowitz, R. Baron and D. Richardson and others.

Rejection of Children

Note in your essay that invasive attacks often occur in unwanted kids. Some parents are not prepared for the appearance of their child. But, they still give birth to kids, because of the impossibility of abortion for medical reasons. Although parents cannot tell him/her directly that he/she is not expected and wanted, he/she feels it, because they “read” information from the gestures and intonation of their parents. Such kids are trying, by all means, to prove that they have a right to exist, that they are good. They are trying to win so much-needed parental love and, as a rule, do it aggressively.

Disrespect to a Child

Point in an essay that invasive reactions can be caused by incorrect and tactless criticism, insulting and demeaning remarks by adults. All that is able to awake not only anger but also frank rage. Disrespect for the child’s personality, public disparaging remarks about him/her rise deep and serious complexes, cause self-doubt and uncertainty in the life of kids.

Prohibition on Physical Activity

If the child was not able to openly show his/her positive and negative emotions during the whole day, could not physically blow off steam, his/her bellicosity would be caused by accumulated excess energy. In its turn, it has no possibility to disappear without leaving a trace.

Discontent of Yourself

Often it is not caused by objective reasons, but a lack of emotional encouragement from the parents, which leads to the fact that kids do not learn how to love themselves. For a child (and adult), it is vital that he/she is loved not for something, but just as he/she is (unmotivated). The most severe punishment does not cause irreparable harm to the child as it leads to lack of self-love and encouragement. If the child does not love himself/herself, considers himself/herself unworthy of love, so he/she will not love others. In this case, an invasive attitude towards the world from his/her part is quite logical.

Influence of Foodstuffs

Food

Indicate in an essay that the aggressiveness of the child can be caused by nutrition. The relationship between increasing of anxiety, nervousness and aggressiveness and consumption of chocolate is proved. Studies are conducted abroad, examining the relationship between the consumption of potato chips, hamburgers, sweet soda and increasing of aggressiveness. Designate in an essay that numerous studies have shown the influence of cholesterol in blood on the aggressiveness of the human (including the character of bellicosity). Thus, there is a lower level of cholesterol in the blood observed in the majority of suicides and those who committed suicide attempts. Low cholesterol level leads to passive aggressiveness.

Other Influences

You can talk in an essay about the impact of noise, vibrations, tightness, air temperature. Scientists have proved that the majority of the “hot” conflicts arise in the heat. This is not surprising because the heat is a stress for our body. That is why we are especially irritable and tense in the heat. Tightness is another powerful provocateur of our aggressiveness. Almost everybody was an eyewitness and even a partaker of unpleasant nasty party quarrels in a crowded bus or subway. Tightness influences the child no less strongly than the adults. It is desirable, therefore, that the child has his own room. If this is not possible, you need to provide him/her with his/her corner in one of the rooms so that he/she will not feel constrained.

Bullying Causes: Coping with Assignment

Dependency

Mark in an assignment that the problem of bullying in schools has not yet received proper attention in the various countries. School bullying has reasons as any phenomenon. They are connected with external factors (situation of interactions, features of classmates, adult demeanor), and with the personal characteristics of the kids, who are included in the situation of school bullying. In terms of social significance, degrading attitude from the side of other kids causes socially dangerous forms of demeanor. They are the manifestation of isolation, coercion, suicidality and psychoactive drugs, Internet, games and television dependencies. Difficulties in the interaction with others may occur in adolescence and youth, and even in adulthood.

The First Reason

You may assume in an assignment that the first cause of kid’s signs of bellicose demeanor in school is in the nature of socialization: the most economical way of socialization for the child is an imitation of an adult. The child, seeing aggressiveness of adults, begins to imitate them. Aggressiveness is not yet a feature of the child’s character; it is taken as “peeped” way of the demeanor of adults. If at this stage the aggressiveness is not suppressed, if the child is not taught other ways of demeanor in return, if, indeed, it is supported by adults, then very soon the child will begin consciously demonstrate bellicose demeanor.

Self – Defense

Self-Defense

Indicate in an assignment that bullying may also occur as a self-defense mechanism, as a manifestation of fear or anxiety in those cases when adolescent regards a real or imaginary danger. By being invasive, he seeks to protect himself from something. The illusion of courage is created in him. Hostility and aggressiveness are linked in a teenager, when he was once a child, with undeveloped basic trust to the world. The degree of development of the sense of trust people and the world depends on the quality of maternal care received by him. Full maternal care provides self-confidence in the child, no fear to take the initiative, make mistakes, etc. If a child does not receive full maternal care, the protective reaction in the form of invasive demeanor will be produced and attached.

It is a good idea to make supposition in an assignment that if aggressiveness is inherent in man as a defense mechanism, it may acquire negative or relatively positive manifestations, depending on the social environment, in which the child grows and develops, the nature of social experience, which he acquires by living among the people. There is a definite dependence of bullying from family structure, from relationships in it.

Inferiority Feeling

Inferiority Complex

One of the causes of bullying is an aspiration to overcome feelings of inferiority, which the teenager has for quite a long time. Note in an assignment that immaturity, lack of independence, lack of confidence lead to painful experiences of their subordinate position. There is the desire to achieve superiority over the stronger and more skillful person. Of course, this is the cause of social and pedagogical order. Adults, who cannot or do not want to understand the feelings of their child, who humiliate him/her, show their superiority, stimulate the emergence of invasive demeanor.

Kid’s Aggressiveness Causes: Academic Review

Bullying at School

Write that reasons of aggressiveness are complex and diverse. In science, there are several approaches to the elucidation of the nature of the aggressiveness in kids. Let’s look at some of them.

Psychoanalytic Approach

In the psychoanalytic academic approach provided by Z. Freud, aggressiveness is considered a procreation of struggle instinct, along with the instincts of life, Eros, death, destruction. Z. Freud, examining the nature of the aggressiveness, wrote that a man continuously produces aggressive energy, which he occasionally “throws out,” sometimes even without any apparent reason.

Ethological Approach

Survival

In the ethological academic approach (K. Lorenz), it is claimed and written that aggressiveness is an integral part of human nature and originates from the innate struggle instinct for survival.

Situational Aggression Theory

In accordance with the theory of situational aggressiveness (J. Dollard) well-known in the academic world, frustration (disturbance, irritation) always leads to aggressiveness, but aggressiveness not always appears in relation to frustration. Often, because of fear of punishment, a strong response reaction of someone, the person transfers his bellicose actions on another person or object that can’t respond to him. N.E. Miller proposed systematized model that explains the appearance of such a phenomenon. He wrote that bellicose of the individual has such demeanor due to three factors: the strength of motivation to aggressiveness; the power of factors that slows down this demeanor; similarity of each potential victim with a frustrating factor.

Social Learning Theory of Aggression

Write that the theory of social learning of aggressiveness (A. Bandura) known for an academic sociology also deserves attention, which claims that bellicose demeanor is a complex skill system, which requires a comprehensive long-term learning. A person must observe the social forms of aggressiveness and assimilate them.

Only the leading academic theories are highlighted in this essay, which explain the phenomenon of aggressiveness, are highlighted in this essay. Write that the appearance of such theories demonstrates the seriousness and the ambiguity of this phenomenon, and the theories contain the idea that aggressiveness is inherent in man from birth, and aggressiveness as the social quality is acquired by baby very early, if he has the opportunity to observe its manifestations in environment life.

Bullies

Bullies

Kids, who come from the following families, have most propensities for coercion:

  • Single-parent families. The child, who is brought up by a single parent, is more inclined to use emotional coercion towards peers. And girls will be more likely to apply emotional coercion to others than boys in this family.
  • Families in which the mothers have the negative attitude to life. Mothers, who don’t trust the world of the child and the school usually don’t have the desire to cooperate with the school. In connection with this, the manifestation of coercion isn’t condemned and corrected by the mother of the child. In such cases, the mothers tend to justify coercion as a natural reaction in contact with “enemies.”
  • The imperious and the authoritarian families. Parenting in conditions of a dominant influence is characterized by unconditional submission to the will of the parents, so kids in such families are often “crushed,” and the school is a “channel,” where they splash out internally suppressed anger and fear.

Other Characteristics

  • Families, who have different conflicting family relationships. The so-called “learning model” is working in families, where adults often quarrel and swear; aggressively assert themselves in the presence of a child. The children learn and subsequently apply it in everyday life as a way to cope with the situation. Thus, a pattern of demeanor can be passed down from generation to generation as a family curse. The frustrating and disturbing atmosphere of the family by itself makes the child defend himself, behave bellicosely. The mutual support and close relationship are almost absent in such families. The violent situations are evaluated differently by kids from families where coercion is practiced. For example, the child, who is accustomed to violent communication such as barks, mandative and increased tone, begins to evaluate this demeanor as a normal one. Consequently, the child won’t see anything special in screams and beatings from the side of both teachers and children.
  • Families with a genetic predisposition to coercion. Academic research shows that kids have a different genetic basis of tolerance of stress. Kids with low tolerance of stress are predisposed to coercion.

Variety of Bullying

No Bullying

We think that school coercion includes various actions of the offender to the victim, but they are directed on the humiliation by emotional, physical, economic and sexual violence and aggression. Let’s consider the content of each of these types of bullying.

Emotional Bullying

Emotional coercion, which causes emotional stress of victim, humiliates him and lowers his self-esteem. In this case, the voice is a weapon.

Types of Emotional Bullying

Mockery

There are following types of emotional coercion:

  • Mockeries, nicknames appropriation, which constantly refer to one person, thereby offending him, endless remarks, ridicule, humiliation in front of other children in schools, and so on. This type of bullying is often directed to those victims, who have noticeable differences in physical appearance, accent, or the voice features, high or low academic progress. Name calling may also take the form of hints about the supposed sexual orientation of student. The use of anonymous phone calls is a very common form of verbal bullying, in which victims can be not only students but even the teachers from school;
  • Rejection, isolation, refusal to communicate with the victim. The initiator of this method, as a rule, is a bully. The victim is intentionally isolated, expelled or ignored by the part of the class or the entire class in school. This situation may be accompanied by the spread of notes, whisperings of insults that can be heard by the victim or degrading graffiti on the board or in public places (they refuse to play with a child and do not want to sit with him at one desk, they do not invite him to birthday parties).

Physical Bullying

Physical Strength 

Under physical coercion, we mean the use of physical force against the student, classmate from one school, resulting in the infliction of physical injury. To physical coercion, we include beating, striking, spanking, cuffs, and property damage. As the result, clothing, books and other personal belongings of the victim may be damaged, stolen or hidden. In extreme cases, a weapon, such as a knife, may be used. Such behavior is more common among boys than among girls. Usually, physical and emotional coercion go hand in hand. Ridicule and bullying can last a long time, causing traumatic experiences in victims.

Sexual Bullying

Sexual coercion or seduction is a use of a child (boy or girl) by an adult or another child to meet the sexual needs or receive benefits. Sexual seduction also includes involving a child in prostitution, pornography, denudation of sexual organs and buttocks to the child, peeping after him/her, when he/she is not aware of this (while undressing).

Economic Bullying

Economic coercion is the use of money to control another person. In this case, offenders demand money from the victim and threaten him/her, if he/she does not give it immediately. They can also extort breakfasts, tickets or money for lunch in school. Victims may also be forced to steal property. This tactic is used exclusively for laying the blame on the victim.

Forms of Bullying

Based on the foregoing, school bullying should be divided into two basic forms:

  • Physical school bullying is intentional pushing, hitting, kicking, beating, causing other injuries, etc.
  • Psychological school bullying is coercion associated with the action on the psyche, causing psychological trauma by verbal insults or threats, harassment, intimidation, by which emotional uncertainty is intentionally caused. To this form we can refer:
    • verbal bullying, where the instrument is voice (insulting name, name-calling, teasing, the spread of insulting rumors, etc.);
    • insulting gestures or actions (e.g., spitting in the victim or in his/her direction);
    • intimidation (using aggressive body language and tone of voice in order to force the victim to do or not to do something);
    • isolation (the victim is intentionally isolated or ignored by the part of students or the entire class);
    • extortion (money, food, and other things, forcing to steal anything);
    • damage and other actions with the property (theft, robbery, hiding of personal belongings of the victim);
    • school cyberbullying is humiliation via mobile phones, the Internet and other electronic devices (sending of ambiguous images and photos, name calling, spreading rumors and other things).

Bullying Conception

Bullying

Bullying is a worldwide and large-scale phenomenon. However, due to the fact that the issue of bullying continues to be scantily explored, there is still no clear scientific conception of the term. The concept of bullying is understood by some authors differently and different qualification of its kinds is given.

New Notion

Bullying is relatively a new conception of modern life. From the daily definition of the word it is transformed into an international term and contains a number of social, psychological, legal and pedagogical issues. Although, the word is a new phenomenon for us, unfortunately, we know very well, that it is one of the most topical problems of our time, requiring thorough studies of it. But the lack of sufficient information about bullying is an obstacle to the resolution of this important issue for us.

School Bullying

School

School bullying is a social phenomenon, which is widespread today in Russia, the USA, Canada, Japan and almost all the countries of Europe. At the same time, this phenomenon is little studied, but we can hardly call this term the new one. People began to speak and write about the problem of bullying at the beginning of the XX century in the world, but serious researches were started in the West nearly 30 years ago.

Bullying Parts

Bullying includes four main components:

  • aggressive and negative demeanor;
  • bullying is carried out regularly;
  • it occurs in relationships, in which the participants have unequal power;
  • such a demeanor is intentional.

Bullying Victims

The victim of bullying can be any child, but this child, who is usually chosen by someone, is weaker or somehow different from the others. The most common victims of school coercion are children who have:

  • Physical defects. The children with such disabilities as wearing glasses, hearing loss or disturbance of movements (for example, CP), those who can’t give an adequate resistance to protect themselves – are bullied more often;
  • Peculiarities of demeanor. The children with “closed” character (introverts and phlegmatic people) or children with impulsive demeanor became the target for mockeries and aggression. In some extent, hyperactive children are too intrusive, but they are more naive and direct than their peers. They are penetrating too deeply into the personal space of other children and adults: get into other people’s conversations, games, impose their views, are impatient in waiting for their turn in the game, etc. For these reasons, they are often irritating and get “back hit.”
  • Features of appearance. All that distinguishes the child’s appearance from the others, may be the object of mockeries: red hair, freckles, protruding ears, crooked legs, the special shape of the head, body weight (obesity or thinness), and so on.

Other Characteristics

  • Poor social skills. There are children, who have not developed a psychological defense against verbal and physical violence, due to the lack of experience of communication and self-expression. Compared with children, whose social skills are developed in accordance with their age, the children with underdeveloped social skills are easier to accept the role of victim.
  • Fear of school. The children often have this fear, when they go to school with negative social expectations. Sometimes this fear is induced by parents, who have had problems at school age, too. A child, who shows the uncertainty and fear of school, is the easier target for jeers of classmates;
  • The lack of life experience in a group (home children). The children, who didn’t attend the children’s group before school, may not have the necessary skills to cope with problems in communication. At the same time, they can often exceed by their erudition and abilities the other children, who went to the children garden;

Diseases. There are many disorders, which cause jibes and bullying of peers: epilepsy, tics, stuttering, speech disorders, dysgraphia (illiterate writing), dyslexia (disorders of reading learning), dyscalculia (disorders of calculation learning), etc.